Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076, Yola. Adamawa State, Nigeria

2 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Idu. P.M.B. 21, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria


Tuberculosis kills approximately two million people annually. This study aimed at evaluating some selected medicinal parts that are used traditionally in Adamawa State, to treat tuberculosis and related symptoms against a microorganism that causes respiratory ailments. In this investigation, for new anti-tuberculosis lead molecules, ten medicinal plants species were selected and investigated for antimycobacterial activities following report of their therapeutic use in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. The stem-bark of the plants was extracted with methanol using soxhlet extractor. The crude extracts were screened for antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the broth microdilution method. The extract of Anogeisus leiocarpus showed strong activity at 0.312 mg/mL followed by Boswellia dalzielii with an activity of 0.625 mg/mL. Extracts of Acacia tortilis, Bombax constantum, Ceiba pentandra and Fiscus platyphylla showed activity at 1.25 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. However, the extracts of Echinaceae angustifolia, Fiscus trichopoda, Fiscus sycomorus and Isoberlinia doka did not exhibit any significant antimycobacterial activity. The results from this study indicated that these six plants are viable potential sources of products active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This report also demonstrated the efficacy of Nigerian medicinal plants as potential agents in treatment/management of tuberculosis and related symptoms. The results have also validated traditional knowledge from the local people regarding the use of these plants to treat tuberculosis. Therefore, the six plants have potential to be developed on new anti- tuberculosis drugs.

Graphical Abstract

Evaluation of some medicinal plants for anti-tuberculosis activity from Adamawa state, Nigeria


Abdulkadir, I.E., Aliyu, A.B., Ibrahim, M.A., Audu, S.B.D., Oyewale , A.O., 2011. Antioxidant activity and mineral elements profiles of Isoberlinia Doka Leaves from Nigeria. Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 5(12), 2507-2512.
Ahmadu, A.A., Zezi, A.U., Yaro, A. H., 2007. Anti-diarrheal activity of the leaf extracts of Daniellia oliveri hutch and dalz (Fabaceae) and Ficus sycomorus miq (Moraceae). Afr. J. Trad. Complem. Alt. Med., 4(4), 524-528.
Akiniyi, I.A., Tella, U.A., 1991. Rural resources and national development (Part II). A case for the recognition of African traditional medicines in Nigeria. Ann. Borno.6(7), 279-293.
Amos, S., Chindo, B., Edmond, I., Akah, P., Wambebe, C., Gamaniel, K., 2001. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of Ficus platyphylla extract in mice and rats. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants. 9(1), 47-53.
Ansha, C., Mfoafo, E.A., 2008. Toxicological evalution of antimalaria herb Crypolepis sanguinolenta in rodents. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol.5, 335-344.
Anthony, J., Olubunmi, A.W., 2014. A survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of dysentery in Amathole district municipality, South Africa. Pak. J. Bot. 46(5), 1685-1692.
Ebrahim, V., Neil, A.M.,2016. The use of Xpert MTB/Rif for active case finding among TB contacts in North West Province, South Africa. Tuberc. Res. Treat. 2016, In press.
Etuk, E.U., BM Agaie, B.M., Onyeyili, P.A., Ottah, C.U., 2006. Anti-diarrhoea effect of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark extract in albino rats. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1, 591-596.
Gupta, V.K., Shukla, C., Bisht, G.R.S., Saikia, D., Kumar, S., Thakur, R.L., 2010. Detection of anti-tuberculosis activity in some folklore plants by radiometric BACTEC assay. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 52, 33-40.
Hamza, O.J., Mbwambo, Z.H., 2006. Antifungal activity of some Tanzanian Plants used in traditionally for the treatment of fungal infections. J. Ethnopharmacol. 108, 124-134.
Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M., 1964. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Vol.1, Part 1 Crown agent for oversea publication, London, pp. 110-114.
Jolaba, M., Wa’ako, D., Odyek, O., Kirimuhuzya, C., 2009. The antimicrobial activity of Lantana camara a plat used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis in south Western Uganda. Africa Health Sci.9, 40-45.
Koehn, F.E., Carter, G.T., 2005. The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.4, 206-220.
Kone, W.M., Atindehou, K.K., Terreaux, C., Hostettmann, K., Traore, D., Dosso, M., 2004. Traditional medicine in north Cord’Ivoire: Screening of 50 medicinal plants for antibacterial activity. J. Ethnopharmacol.93(1), 43-49.
Konstantinos, A., 2010. Testing for tuberculosis. Australian Prescriber. 33(1), 12-18.
Kubmarawa, D., Ajoku, G.A., Enwerem, N.M., Okorie, D.A., 2007. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of 50 medicinal plants from Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol.6(14), 1690-1696.         
Kubmarawa, D., Akiniyi, J.A., Okorie, D.A., 2013. Ethnomedicinal survey of the traditional medicine of Lala people of Nigeria. 1(3), 039-057.
Kumar, V., Abbas, A.K., Fausto, N., Mitchell, R.N., 2007. Robbins Basic Pathology. 8th Ed. Saunders Elsevier. pp. 516-522.
Lawn, S.D., Zumla, A.I., 2011. Tuberculosis. Lancet 378(9785), 57-72.
Limakatso, L., Nigel, F., Tolu, O., Lesley, S., Katlego, M., Modiehi, R., Pattamukkil, A., Manchester, K., 1984. Tuberculosis and leprosy in antiquity: an interpretation. Medical Hist. 28,162-173.
Mann, A., Amupitan, J.O., Oyewale, A.O., Okogun, J.I., Ibrahim, K., 2007. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous flora for treating tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases in Niger State, Nigeria. J. Phytomed. Therap.12, 1-12.
Mann, A., Ibrahim K., Oyewale, A.O., Amupitan, J.O., Okogun, J.I., 2009. Antimycobacterial activity of some medicinal plants in Niger state, Nigeria. Afr. J. Infect. Dis.3(2), 44-48.
Mohammad, N., Md. Kausar, N., Shilpi, D., 2017. Nanotechnology-based approach in tuberculosis treatment. Tuberc. Res. Treat.  2017, In press.
Nadembega, P., Boussim, J.I., Nikiema, J.B., Poli, F., Antognoni, F., 2011. Medicinal plants in baskoure, Kourittenga province, Burkina Faso: An ethnobotanical study. J. Ethnopharmacol. 133(2), 378-395.
Nvau, J.B., Oladosu, P.O., Orishadipe, A.T., 2011. Antimycobacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in plateau state for treatment of tuberculosis. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am.2(9), 1270-1272.
Ogundaini, A.O., 2005. From greens into medicine taking a lead from nature, Inaugural lecture series,176 Obafemi Awolowo University Press Ltd. Ile-Ife, Nigeria, pp. 1-10.
Oladosu, P.O., Isu, N.R., Ibrahim, K., Orishadipe, A.T., Lawson, L., 2013. Antituberculosis activity of bioactive compounds from fruit extract of Acacia nilotica. J. Microbiol. Res. 3(6), 247-254.
Pearce-Duvet, J., 2006. The origin of human pathogens: Evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease. Boil. Rev. Cam. Philos. Soc.81(3), 369-382.
Rai, P.K., Gupta, R.K., 2006. Evaluation of secondary metabolites from ecological and molecular phytogenetic perspective. Phytochemistry64, 3-19.
Rothschild, B.M., Martin, L.D., Lev, G., 2001. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA from an extinct bison dated 17,000 years before the present. Clin. Infect. Dis.33(3), 305-311.
Sanogo, R., 2005. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of 14 plants used in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections. A paper presented at western Africa network of natural products research scientists (WANNPRES), First Scientific Meeting, August,15-20, 2004. Accra, Ghana: A report.Afr. J. Trad. Complem. Alter. Med.2(2), 177-205.
Snider, D.E.T., Raviglione, M., Kochi, A., 1994. A Global Burden of Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis, Protection, and Control. Barry Bloom Ed., ASM Press, Washington, D.C. p. 3.
Tanaka, H., Sudo, M., Kawamura, T., Sato, M., Yamaguchi, R., Fukai, T., Sakai, E., Tanaka, N.,2010. Antibacterial constituents from the roots of Erythrina herbacea against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Planta Med.76(9), 916-919.
Uba, A., Ibrahim, K., Agbo, E.B., Makinde, A.A., 2003. In vitro inhibition of Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC607 and a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by some Nigerian Medicinal Plants. Sci. Forum: J. Pure Appl. Sci. 6:226-231.
Victor, Y.A., 2013. In-vitro assessment of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of six wound healing medicinal plants. J. Nat. Sci. 3(1), 74-82.
Waterman, C., Smith, R.A., Pontiggia, L., DerMarderosian, A., 2010. Anthelmintic screening of Sub-Saharan African plants used in traditional medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol. 127, 755-759.