Document Type : Review article


Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Química e Farmácia, Universidade do Algarve, Edifício 8, MeditBio, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal


Damask rose is one of the most important aromatic plants over the world, although mostly cultivated in Bulgaria, Turkey, and Iran. Damask rose is used not only as an ornamental plant but also for extracting essential oils from petals and buds. From flowers is also obtained rose water, rose concrete and rose absolute for being applied in foodstuffs, perfumery and cosmetics (essential oil, concrete, absolute), and pharmaceutical industry. A brief review upon the chemical composition of Damask rose essential oils (EOs) and their biological properties (antimicrobial, antioxidant, relaxant, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, among other properties) was made. The factors that influence the chemical composition of EOs is also reviewed.

Graphical Abstract

Rosa damascena essential oils: a brief review about chemical composition and biological properties


Main Subjects

Abdel-Hameed, E.-S., Bazaid, S.A., Hagag, H.A., 2016. Chemical characterization of Rosa damascena Miller var. trigintipetala Dieck essential oil and its in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. J. Essent. Oil Res. 28(2), 121-129.
Agaoglu, Y.S., 2000. Rose oil industry and the production of oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) in Turkey. Biotechnol. Biotechnol. Equip. 14(2), 8-15.
Agaoglu, Y.S., Ergül, A., Baydar, N., 2000. Molecular analysis of genetic diversity oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) grown Isparta (Turkey). Biotechnol. Biotechnol. Equip. 14(2), 16-18.
Aghagoli, S., Salimi, A., Salimi, M., Ghazavi, Z., Marofi, M., Mohammadbeigi, A., 2016. Aromatherapy with Rosa damascena in apnea, bradycardia and SPO2 of preterm infants; a randomized clinical trial. Int. J. Pediatr. 4(6), 1911-1918.
Ahmed, D., Sharma, M., Mukerjee, A., Ramteke, P.W., Kumar, V., 2013. Improved glycemic control, pancreas protective and hepatoprotective effect by traditional poly-herbal formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 13(10).
Akbari, M., Kazerami, H.R., Kamrani, A., Mohri, M., 2013. A preliminary study on some potential toxic effects of Rosa damascena Mill. Iran. J. Vet. Res. 14(3), 232-236.
Almasirad, A., Amanzadeh, Y., Taheri, A., 2007. Composition of a historical rose oil sample (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae). J. Essent. Oil Res. 19(2), 110-112.
Anonymous, 2017. The Plant List. (accessed at 28/04/2017).
Aridoğan, B.C., Baydar, H., Kaya, S., Demirci, M., Özbaşar, D., Mumcu, E., 2002. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils. Arch. Pharm. Res. 25(6), 860-864.
Babu, K.G.D., Singh, B., Joshi, V.P., Singh, V., 2002. Essential oil composition of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) distilled under different pressures and temperatures. Flav. Fragr. J. 17(2), 136-140.
Baldermann, S., Yang, Z., Sakai, M., Fleischmann, P., Watanabe, N., 2009. Volatile constituents in the scent of roses. Floricult. Ornament. Biotechnol. 3(1), 89-97.
Banthorpe, D.V., Barrow, S.E., 1983. Monoterpene biosynthesis in extracts from cultures of Rosa damascena. Phytochemistry. 22(12), 2727-2728.
Banthorpe, D.V., Branch, S.A., Poots, I., Fordham, W.D., 1988. Accumulation of 2-phenylethanol by callus derived from leaf-bud of Rosa damascena. Phytochemistry. 27(3), 795-801.
Banthorpe, D.V., Grey, T.J., Poots, I., Fordham, W.D., 1986. Monoterpene metabolism in cultures of Rosa species. Phytochemistry. 25(10), 2321-2326.
Bardarov, V., Veltcheva, A., 2011. Comparison of the chiral selectivity of two GC columns for the separation of enantiomers in rose oil. J. Univ. Chem. Technol. Metal. 46(3), 320-328.
Baser, K.H., Kirkcuoglu, M., Ozek, T. 2003. Turkish rose oil research: recent results. Perfum. Flavor. 28(2), 34-42.
Başer, K.H.C., 1992. Turkish rose oil. Perfum. Flavor. 17(3), 45-52.
Basim, E., Basim, H., 2003. Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil. Fitoterapia 74(4), 394-396.
Basim, E., Basim, H., 2004. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of essential oil of Rosa damascena on Erwinia amylovora. Phytoparasitica 32(4), 409-412.
Baydar, H., Baydar, N.G., 2005. The effects of harvest date, fermentation duration and Tween 20 treatment on essential oil content and composition of industrial oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). Ind. Crops Prod. 21(2), 251-255.
Baydar, H., Erbaş, S., Kazaz, S., 2016. Variations in floral characteristics and scent composition and the breeding potential in seed-derived oil-bearing roses (Rosa damascena Mill.). Turk. J. Agric. For. 40(4), 560-569.
Baydar, H., Schilz, H., Krüger, H., Erbaş, S., Kineci, S., 2008. Influences of fermentation time, hydrodistillation time and fractions on essential oil composition of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 11(3), 224-232.
Baydar, N.G., Baydar, H., Debener, T., 2004. Analysis of genetic relationships among Rosa damascena plants grown in Turkey by using AFLP and microsatellite markers. J. Biotechnol.111(3), 263-267.
Bayle, J.C., Casabianca, H., 1996. Isotopic 13C/12C and chiral analyses of constituents of essential oils of rose, concrete and absolute. Riv. Ital. EPPOS 7, 262-268.
Biswas, N.R., Gupta, S.K., Das, G.K., Kumar, N., Mongre, P.K., Haldar, D., Beri, S., 2001. Evaluation of Ophthacare® eye drops -- a herbal formulation in the management of various ophthalmic disorders. Phytohterap. Res. 15(7), 618-620.
Boelens, M.H., 1997. Differences in chemical and sensory properties of orange flower and rose oils obtained from hydrodistillation and from supercritical CO2 extraction. Perfum. Flavor. 22(3), 31-35.
Boskabady, M.H., Kiani, S., Rakhshandah, H., 2006. Relaxant effects of Rosa damascena on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s). J. Ethnopharmacol. 106(3), 377-382.
Carmona, M.D., Llorach, R., Obon, C., Rivera, D., 2005. “Zahraa”, a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties. J. Ethnopharmacol. 102(3), 344-350.
Chalchat, J.-C., Özcan, M.M., 2009. A comparative investigation on the composition of rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) oil produced by using two different methods. J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 12(4), 447-452.
Council Regulation (EC) Nº 510/2006. Official Journal of the European Union. 25.4.2014.
Dehghan, P., Lebaschi, M.H., Abbaszadeh, B., Zakerian, A., 2012. The main compounds in essential oil composition of Damask rose genotypes under Mulched rainfed conditions. Ann. Biol. Res. 3(9), 4470-4473.
Dobreva, A., 2013. Dynamics of the headspace chemical components of Rosa damascena Mill. flowers. J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 16(3), 404-411.
Dobreva, A., Kovacheva, N., 2010. Daily dynamics of the essential oils of Rosa damascena Mill. and Rosa alba L. Agric. Sci. Technol. 2(2), 71-74.
Dobreva, A., Kovatcheva, N., Astatkie, T., Zheljazkov, V.D., 2011. Improvement of essential oil yield of oil-bearing (Rosa damascena Mill.) due to surfactant and maceration. Ind. Crops Prod. 34(3), 1649-1651.
Dobreva, A., Velcheva, A., Bardarov, V., Bardarov, K., 2013. Chemical composition of different genotypes oil-bearing roses. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci. 19(6), 1213-1218.
Erbaş, S., Baydar, H., 2016. Variation in scent compounds of oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) produced by headspace solid phase microextraction, hydrodistillation and solvent extraction. Rec. Nat. Prod. 10(5), 555-565.
Farnia, V., Shirzadifar, M., Shakeri, J., Rezaei, M., Bajoghli, H., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Brand, S., 2015. Rosa damascena oil improves SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in male patients suffering from major depressive disorders: results from a double blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Neuropsychiatr. Dis. Treat. 11, 625-635.
Ginova, A., Tsvetkov, I., Koudakova, V., 2012. Rosa damascena Mill. - an overview for evaluation of propagation methods. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci. 18(4), 545-556.
Gochev, V., Jirovetz, L., Wlcek, K., Buchbauer, G., Schmidt, E., Stoyanova, A., Dobreva, A., 2009. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of historical rose oil from Bulgaria. J. Essent. Oil-Bear Plants 12(1), 1-6.
Gochev, V., Wlcek, K., Buchbauer, G., Stoyanova, A., Dobreva, A., Schmidt, E., Jirovetz, L., 2008. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity and composition of rose oils from various geographic origins, in particular Bulgarian rose oil. Nat. Prod. Commun. 3(7), 1063-1068.
Gorji-Chakespari, A., Nikbakht, A.M., Sefidkon, F., Ghasenmi-Varnamkhasti, M., Valero, E.L., 2017. Classification of essential oil composition in Rosa damascena Mill. genotypes genotypes using an electronic nose. J. Appl. Res. Med. Arom. Plants 4(1), 27-34.
Gorji-Chakespari, A., Nikbakht, A.M., Sefidkon, F., Varnamkhasti, M., Brezmes, J., Llobet, E., 2016. Performance comparison of fuzzy ARTMAP and LDA in qualitative classification of Iranian Rosa damascena essential oils by an electronic nose. Sensors 16(5), 636.
Gul, M., Kazaz, S., Baydar, H., Sirikci, B.S., 2015. A study about technical, economical situation, problems and improvement of oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) in Turkey. J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 18(3), 613-626.
Hajhashemi, V., Ghannadi, A., Hajiloo, M., 2010. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Rosa damascena hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil in animal models. Iran. J. Pharm. Res. 9(2), 163-168.
Hongratanaworakit, T., 2009. Relaxing effect of rose oil on humans. Nat. Prod Commun. 4(2), 291-296. (accessed at 28/04/2017).
Incerti, G., Romano, A., Termolino, P., Lanzotti, V., 2013. Metabolomic fingerprinting using nuclear magnetic resonance and multivariate data analysis as a tool biodiversity informatics: a case study on the classification of Rosa x damascena. Plant Biosyst. 147(4), 947-954.
Jirovetz, L., Eller, G., Buchbauer, G., Schmidt, E., Denkova, Z., Stoyanova, A., Nikolova, R., Geissler, M., 2006. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activities and odor descriptions of some essential oils with characteristic floral rosy scent and of their principal aroma compounds. Recent Res. Dev. Agron. Hortic. 2, 1-12.
Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Stoyanova, A., Balinova, A., Guangjiun, Z., Xihan, M., 2005. Solid phase microextraction/gas chromatographic and olfactory analysis of the scent and fixative properties of the essential oil of Rosa damascena L. from China. Flav. Fragr. J. 20(1), 7-12.
Karaboyaci, M., 2014. Recycling of roses wastes for use in natural plant dye and industrial applications. J. Text. Inst. 105(11), 1160-1166.
Karami, A., Khosh-Khui, M., Salehi, H., Saharkhiz, M.J., Rowshan, V., 2013. Headspace analysis of floral scent from two distinct genotypes of Iranian Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 16, 489-498.
Karami, A., Khosh-Khui, M., Salehi, H., Saharkhiz, M.J., Zandi, P., 2014. Essential oil chemical diversity of forty-four Rosa damascena accessions from Iran. J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 17(6), 1378-1388.
Karami, A., Rousta, P., Jowkar, A., 2016. Temporal variation of essential oils in dried flower of two genotypes of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). 6th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BREEDMAP 6, 453, 89-91.
Karami, A., Zandi, P., Khosh-Khui, M., Salehi, H., Saharkhiz, M.J., 2012. Analysis of essential oil from nine distinct genotypes of Iranian Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). J. Med. Plant Res. 6(42), 5495-5498.
Kazaz, S., Erbaş, S., Baydar, H., 2009. The effects of storage temperature and duration on essential oil content and composition oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). Turk. J. Field Crops 14(2), 89-96.
Kazaz, S., Erbaş, S., Baydar, H., Dilmacunal, T., Koyuncu, M.A., 2010. Cold storage of oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) flowers. Sci. Hort. 126(2), 284-290.
Kiani, M., Zamani, Z., Khalighi, A., Fatahi, R., Byrne, D.H., 2007. Wide genetic diversity of Rosa damascena Mill. germplasm in Iran revealed by RAPD analysis. Sci. Hortic. 115(4), 386-392.
Kiani, M., Zamani, Z., Khalighi, A., Fatahi, R., Byrne, D.H., 2010b. A unique germaplasm of Damask roses in Iran. Acta Hort. 870(1), 131-136.
Kiani, M., Zamani, Z., Khalighi, A., Moghadam, M.R.F., Byrne, D.H., 2010a. Microsatellite analysis of Iranian Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) germplasm. Plant Breed. 129(5), 551-559.
Koksal, N., Aslancan, H., Sadighazadi, S., Kafkas, E., 2015. Chemical investigation on Rosa damascena Mill. volatiles: effects of storage and drying conditions. Acta Sci. Pol., Horto. Cult. 14(1), 105-114.
Kornova, K., Michailova, J., Astadjov, N., 2000. Application of in vitro techniques for propagation of Rosa kazanlika top (Rosa damascena var. trigintipetala). Biotecnol. Biotechnol. Equip. 14(1), 78-81.
Kovacheva, N., Rusanov, K., Atanassov, I., 2010. Atanassov, I. Industrial cultivation on oil bearing rose and rose oil production in Bulgaria during 21st century, directions and challenges. Biotechnol. Biotechnol Equip. 24(2), 1793-1798.
Kovatcheva, N., Zheljazkov, V.D., Astatkie, T., 2011. Productivity, oil content, composition, and bioactivity of oil-bearing rose accessions. Hortsci. 46(5), 710-714.
Kovats, E., 1987. Composition of essential oils. Part 7. Bulgarian oil of rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). J. Chromatogr. 406(2), 185-222.
Koyuncu, M.A., Dikmacünal, T., Bayındır, D., Erbaş, S., 2013. The role of ethylene in determining oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) storage life. Acta Hort. 1012(2), 987-993.
Krupčík, J., Gorovenko, R., Špánik, I., Sandra, P., Armstrong, D.W., 2015. Enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. A route to elucidate the authenticity and origin of Rosa damascena Mill. essential oils. J. Sep. Sci. 38(19), 3397-3403.
Kumar, R., Sharma, S., Kaundal, M., Sharma, S., Thakur, M., 2016a. Response of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) to foliar application of magnesium (mg), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) sulphate under western Himalayas. Ind. Crops Prod. 83(1), 596-602.
Kumar, R., Sharma, S., Kaundal, M., Sood, S., Agnihotri, V.K., 2016b. Variation in essential oil content and composition of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill) flowers by salt application under mid hills of the Western Himalayas. J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 19(2), 297-306.
Kumar, R., Sharma, S., Sood, S., Agnihotri, V.K., 2013b. Agronomic interventions for the improvement of essential oil content and composition of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) under western Himalayas. Ind. Crops Prod. 48(1), 171-177.
Kumar, R., Sharma, S., Sood, S., Agnihotri, V.K., Singh, B., 2013a. Effect of diurnal variability and storage conditions on essential oil content and quality of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) flowers in north western Himalayas. Sci. Hortic. 154(1), 102-108.
Kumar, R., Sharma, S., Sood, S., Agnihotri, V.K., Singh, V., Singh, B., 2014. Evaluation of several Rosa damascena varieties and Rosa bourboniana accession for essential oil content and composition in western Himalayas. J. Essent. Oil Res. 26(3), 147-152.
Latifi, G., Ghannadi, A., Minaiyan, M., 2015. Anti-inflammatory effect of volatile oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Res. Pharm. Sci. 10(6), 514-522.
Lawrence, B.M., 1991. Progress in essential oil: rose oil and extracts. Perfum Flavor. 16(3), 43-77.
Lawrence, B.M., 2005. Progress in essential oil: rose oil and extracts. Perfum Flavor. 30(4), 60-74.
Lisin, G., Safiyev, S., Craker, L.E., 1999. Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils. Acta Hort. 501(1), 283-287.
Liu, Q., Meng, X., Li, Y., Zhao, C.-N., Tang, G.-Y., Li, H.-B., 2017. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of spices. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, 1283.
Lubbe, A., Verpoorte, R., 2011. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants for specialty industrial materials. Ind. Crops Prod. 34(1), 785-801.
Mahboubi, M., 2016. Rosa damascena as holy ancient herb with novel applications. J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 6(1), 10-16.
Mahboubi, M., Kazempour, N., Khamechian, T., Fallah, M.H., Kermani, M.M., 2011. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Rosa damascena Mill essential oil. J. Biol. Act. Prod. Nat. 1(1), 19-26.
Maleki, N.A., Maleki, S.A., Bekhradi, R., 2013. Suppressive effects of Rosa damascena essential oil on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in male mice. Iran. J. Pharm. Res. 12(3), 357-361.
Margina, A., Lecheva, I., Craker, L.E., Zheljaskov, V.D., 1999. Diseases and pests on Bulgarian oil-bearing rose (Rosa kazanlika v. t. = Rosa damascena Mill. var. kazanlika). Acta Hort. 502(1), 237-242.
Mileva, M., Krumova, E., Miteva-Staleva, J., Kostadinova, N., Dobreva, A., Galabov, A.S., 2014. Chemical compounds, in vitro antioxidant and antifungal activities of some plant essential oils belonging to Rosaceae family. Compt. Rend. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 67(10), 1363-1368.
Mirzaei, M., Sefidkon, F., Ahmadi, N., Shojaeiyan, A., Hosseini, H., 2016. Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) essential oil is affected by short- and long-term handling. Ind. Crops Prod. 79(1), 219-224.
Misra, A., Sharma, S., Singh, A., Patra, N.K., 2002. Influence of topographical and edaphic factors on rose. II. Flowers quality and quantity. Commun.Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 33(15-18), 2771-2780.
Misra, A., Srivastava, N.K., Kumar, R., Khan, A., 2005. Effect of Palcobutrazol (PP333) on flower quality and quantity of Rosa damascena. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 36(4-6), 477-486.
Mlcek, J., Rop, O., 2011. Fresh edible flowers of ornamental plants -- a new source of nutraceutical foods. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 22(10), 561-569.
Mohamadi, M., Mostafavi, A., Shamspur, T., 2011. Effect of storage on essential oil content and composition of Rosa damascena Mill. petals under different conditions. J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 14(4), 430-441.
Mohamadi, M., Shamspur, T., Mostafavi, A., 2013. Comparison of microwave-assisted distillation and conventional hydrodistillation in the essential oil extraction of flowers Rosa damascena Mill. J. Essent. Oil Res. 25(1), 55-61.
Mohammadhosseini, M., 2016. A Comprehensive Review on New Methods for Processing, Separation and Identification of the Essential Oils. Islamic Azad University of Shahrood Press, Shahrood, Iran.
Mohammadhosseini, M., 2017a. Essential oils extracted using microwave-assisted hydrodistillation from aerial parts of eleven Artemisia species: Chemical compositions and diversities in different geographical regions of Iran. Rec. Nat. Prod. 11(2), 114-129.
Mohammadhosseini, M., 2017b. The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties and medicinal applications of essential oils and extracts of different Ziziphora species. Ind. Crops Prod. 105(1), 164-192.
Mohammadhosseini, M., Akbarzadeh, A., Flamini, G., 2017a. Profiling of compositions of essential oils and volatiles of Salvia limbata using traditional and advanced techniques and evaluation for biological activities of their extracts. Chem. Biodivers. 14(5), In press.
Mohammadhosseini, M., Sarker, S.D., Akbarzadeh, A., 2017b. Chemical composition of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea species and their biological activities: A review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 199(1), 257-315.
Naziroğlu, M., Kozlu, S., Yorgancigil, E., Uğuz, A.C., Karakuş, K., 2013. Rose oil (from Rosa x damascena Mill.) vapour attenuates depression-induced oxidative toxicity in rat brain. J. Nat. Med. 67(1), 152-158.
Nikgakht, A., Kafi, M., 2008. A study on the relationships between Iranian people and damask rose (Rosa damascena) and its therapeutic and healing properties. Acta Hort. 790(1), 251-254.
Nikolova, G., Karamalakova, Y., Kovacheva, N., Stanev, S., Zheleva, A., Gadjeva, V., 2016. Protective effect of two essential oils isolated from Rosa damascena Mill. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and two classic antioxidants against L-dopa oxidative toxicity induced in healthy mice. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 81(1), 1-7.
Noodezh, H.M., Moieni, A., Bagghizadeh, A., 2012. In vitro propagation of the Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 48(5), 530-538.
Obón, C., Rivera, D., Alcaraz, F., Attieh, L., 2014. Beverage and culture. “Zhourat” a multivariate analysis of the globalization of a herbal tea from the Middle East. Appetite 79(1), 1-10.
Oka, N., Ohishi, H., Hatano, T., Hornberger, M., Sakata, K., Watanabe, N., 1999. Aroma evolution during flower opening in Rosa damascena Mill. Z. Naturforsch. 54c(11), 889-895.
Onursal, E., Ekinci, K., 2015. Co-composting of rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure and straw or sawdust: effects of carbon source and C/N ratio on decomposition. Waste Manag. Res. 33(4), 332-338.
Pal, P.K., Agnihotri, V.K., Gopichand, Singh, R.D., 2014. Impact of level and timing of pruning on flower yield and secondary metabolites profile of Rosa damascena under western Himalayan region. Ind. Crops Prod. 52(1), 219-227.
Pal, P.K., Mahajan, M., Agnihotri, V.K., 2016. Foliar application of plant nutrients and kinetin modifies growth and essential oil profile in Rosa damascena under acidic conditions. Acta Physiol. Plant 38(7), 1-14.
Pal, P.K., Singh, R.D., 2013. Understanding crop-ecology and agronomy of Rosa damascena Mill. for higher productivity. Austral. J. Crop Sci. 7(2), 196-205.
Pati, P.K., Sharma, M., Ahuja, P.S., 2001. Micropropagation, protoplast culture and its implications in the improvement of scented rose. Acta Hort. 547(1), 147-158.
Pavlov, A., Popov, S., Kovacheva, E., Georgiev, M., Ilieva, M., 2005. Volatile and polar compounds in Rosa damascena Mill. 1803 cell suspension. J. Biotechnol. 118(1), 89-97.
Pellati, F., Orlandini, G., van Leeuwen, G., K.A., Anesin, G., Bertelli, D., Paolini, M., Benvenuti, S., Camin, F., 2013. Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry, flame ionization detection and elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for characterizing and detecting the authenticity of commercial essential oils of Rosa damascena Mill. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 27(5), 591-602.
Pirseyedi, M., Mardi, M., Davazdahemami, S., Kermani, V., Mohamadi, A., 2005. Analysis of the genetic diversity of 12 Iranian Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) genotypes using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Iran. J. Biotechnol. 3(4), 225-230.
Porto, C., Decorti, D., Natolino, A., 2015. Application of a supercritical CO2 extraction procedure to recover volatile compounds and polyphenols from Rosa damascena. Sep. Sci. Technol. 50(8), 1175-1180.
Pourkhaloee, A., Khosh-Khui, M., 2013. Spermine, in the presence of IBA, affects rooting and growth of cuttings of Rosa damascena Mill. and R. moschata J. Herrm. Europ. J. Hort. Sci. 78(3), 112-118.
Rai, M., Paralijar, P., Jogee, P., Agarkar, G., Ingle, A.P., 2017. Synergistic antimicrobial of essential oils in combination with nanoparticles: emerging trends and future perpectives. Int. J. Pharm. 519(1-2), 67-78.
Ren, J., Yang, L., Wang, Y., Yao, H., 2016. Chemical profile of floral scent at different flower developmental stages of rose de rescht (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivated in Beijing. J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 19(2), 433-443.
Rusanov, K., Garo, E., Rusanova, M., Fertig, O., Hamburger, M., Atanassov, I., Butterweck, V., 2014. Recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater using adsorption resins - a pilot study. Planta Med. 80(17), 1657-1664.
Rusanov, K., Kovacheva, N., Atanassov, A., Atanassov, I., 2009a. Rosa damascena Mill., the oil-bearing Damask rose: genetic resources, diversity and perspectives for molecular breeding. Floriculture Ornamental Biotechnol. 3(1), 14-20.
Rusanov, K., Kovacheva, N., Rusanova, M., Atanassov, I., 2011. Traditional Rosa damascena flower harvesting practices evaluated through GC/MS metabolite profiling of flower volatiles. Food Chem. 129(4), 1851-1859.
Rusanov, K., Kovacheva, N., Rusanova, M., Atanassov, I., 2012. Reducing methyl eugenol content in Rosa damascena Mill rose oil by changing the traditional rose flower harvesting practices. Eur. Rood Res. Technol. 234(5), 921-926.
Rusanov, K., Kovacheva, N., Stefanova, K., Atanassov, A., Atanassov, I., 2009b. Rosa damascena - genetic resources and capacity building for molecular breeding. Biotechnol. Biotechnol. Equip. 23(4), 1436-1439.
Rusanov, K., Kovacheva, N., Vosman, B., Zhang, L., Rajapakse, S., Atanassov, A., Atanassov, I., 2005. Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties. Theor. Appl. Genet. 111(4), 804-809.
Safaei-Ghomi, J., Akhoondi, S., Batooli, H., Dackhill, M., Chemical variability of essential oil components of two Rosa x damascena genotypes growing in Iran. Chem. Nat. Comp. 45(2), 262-264.
Saffari, V.R., Sharifi-Sirchi, G.R., Torabi-Sirchi, M.H., 2011. Enhancing rooting consistency in Rosa damascena scions. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10(73), 16495-16500.
Saint-Lary, L., Roy, C., Paris, J.-P., Martin, J.-F., Thomas, O.P., Fernandez, X., 2016. Metabolomics as a tool for the authentication of rose extracts used in flavour and fragrance area. Metabolomics 12(3), 49.
Saleh, M.A., Clark, S., Woodard, B., Deolu-Sobogun, S.A., 2010. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of essential oils. Ethn. Dis. 20(Suppl. 1), S1-78-S1-82.
Salman, S.Y., Erbaş, S., 2014. Contact and repellency effects of Rosa damascena Mill. essential oil and its two major constituents against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Türk. Entomol. Derg. 38(4), 365-376.
Senol, F.S., Orhan, I.E., Kurkcuoglu, M., Khan, M.T.H., Altintas, A., Sener, B., Baser, K.H.C., 2013. A mechanistic investigation on anticholinesterase and antioxidant effects of rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). Food Res. Int. 53(1), 502-509.
Setzer, W.N., 2009. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy. Nat. Prod. Commun. 4(9), 1305-0316.
Shakeri, F., Boskabady, M.H., 2015. A review of the relaxant effect of various medicinal plants on tracheal smooth muscle, their possible mechanisms and potency. J. Ethnopharmacol. 175(1), 528-548.
Shamspur, T., Mohamadi, M., Mostafavi, A., 2012. The effects of onion and salt treatments on essential oil content and composition of Rosa damascena Mill. Ind. Crops Prod. 37(1), 451-456.
Sharma, S., Kumar, R., 2016. Effect of temperature and storage duration of lowers on essential oil content and composition of damask rose (Rosa x damascena Mill.) under western Himalaias. J. Appl. Res. Med. Arom. Plants 3(1), 10-17.
Shieber, A., Mihalev, K., Berardini, N., Mollov, P., Carle, R., 2005. Flavonol glycosides from distilled petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Z. Naturforsch. 60c(5-6), 379-384.
Shikov, V., Kammerer, D.R., Mihalev, K., Mollov, P., Carle, R., 2012. Antioxidant capacity and colour stability of texture-improved canned strawberries as affected by the addition of rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petal extracts. Food Res. Int. 46, 552-556.
Shohayeb, M., Arida, H., Abdel-Hameed, El.-S.S., Bazaid, S., 2015. Effects of macro- and microelements in soil of rose farms in Taif on essential oil production by Rosa damascena Mill. J. Chem. 2015.
Singh, L.B., 1970. Utilization of saline-alkali soil without prior reclamation -- Rosa damascena, its botany, cultivation, and utilization. Econ. Bot. 24(2), 175-179.
Slavov, A., Kiyohara, H., Yamada, H., 2013. Immunomodulating pectic polysaccharides from waste rose petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 59, 192-200.
Slavov, A., Vasileva, I., Stefanov, L., Stoyanova, A., 2017. Valorization of wastes from the rose oil industry. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 16(2), 309-325.
Surburg, H., Panten, J., 2006.Natural Raw Materials in the Flavour and Fragrance Industry. In: Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials. Preparation, Properties and Uses. 5th Ed. Horst Surburg and Johannes Panten, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, pp. 177-238.
Talib, W.H., Mahasneh, A.M., 2010. Antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Jordanian plants used in traditional medicine. Molecules 15(3), 1811-1824.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9842, 2003). Oil of rose (Rosa x damascena Miller). International Standards for Business, Government and Society, ISO 9842.
Tintchev, A., Dobreva, A., Schulz, H., Toepfl, S., 2012. Effect of pulsed electric fields on yield and chemical composition of rose oil (Rosa damascena Mill.). J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 15(6), 876-884.
Tsanaktsidis, C.G., Tamoutsidis, E., Kasapidis, G., Itziou, A., Ntina, E., 2012. Preliminary results on attributes of distillation products of the rose Rosa damascena as a dynamic and friendly to the environment rural crop. APCBEE Procedia 1, 66-73.
Ucar, Y., Kazaz, S., Eraslan, F., Baydar, H., 2017. Effects of different irrigation water and nitrogen levels on the water use, rose flower yield and oil yield of Rosa damascena. Agric. Water Manag. 182, 94-102.
Ulusoy, S., Boşgelmez-Timaz, G., Seçilmiş-Canbay, H., 2009. Tocopherol, carotene, phenolic contents and antibacterial properties of rose essential oil, hydrosol and absolute. Curr. Microbiol. 59(5), 554-558.
Verma, R.S., Padalia, R.C., Chauhan, A., Singh, A., Yadav, A.K., 2011. Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills. Nat. Prod. Res. 25(17), 1577-1584.
Watanabe, S., Hashimoto, I., Hayashi, K., Yagi, K., Asai, T., Knapp, H., Straubinger, M., Winterhalter, P., Watanabe, N., 2001. Isolation and identification of 2-phenylethyl disaccharide glycosides and monoglycosides from rose flowers, and their potential role in scent formation. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 65(2), 442-445.
Wei, A. Shibamoto, T., 2007. Antioxidant activities and volatile constituents of various essential oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55(5), 1737-1742.
Yang, L., Ren, J., Wang, Y., Hu, Q., 2014. Diurnal fluctuation of volatile compounds emitted from four seasons rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivated in Beijing. J. Appl. Bot. Food Qual. 87(1), 9-15.
Yassa, N., Masoomi, F., Rohani-Rankoushi, S.E., Hadjiakhoondi, A., 2009. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the extract and essential oil of Rosa damascena from Iran, population of Guilan. Daru 17(3), 175-180.
Yilmaz, D., Ekenci, K., Dilmacunal, T., Erbas, S., 2011. Effect of harvesting hour on some physical and mechanical properties of Rosa damascena Mill. J. Sci. Food Agric. 91(9), 1585-1590.
Yilmaz, D., Ekinci, K., 2011. Physico-mechanical characteristics of rose petals dealing with the pneumatic harvest of Rosa damascena. Span. J. Agric. Res. 9(2), 389-394.
Yousefi, B., 2016. Screening of Rosa damascena Mill. landraces for flower yield and essential oil content in cold climates. Folia Hort. 28(1), 31-40.
Yousefi, B., Tabaei-Aghdaei, S.R., Darvish, F., Assareh, M.H., 2009. Flower yield performance and stability of various Rosa damascena Mill. landraces under different ecological conditions. Sci. Hortic. 121(3), 333-339.
Zeinali, H., Tabaei-Aghdaei, S.R., Arzani, A., 2009. A study of morphological variations and their relationship with flower yield and yields components in Rosa damascena. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 11(4), 439-448.
Zu, Y., Yu, H., Liang, L., Fu, Y., Efferth, T., Liu, X., Wu, N., 2010. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionobacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells. Molecules 15(5), 3200-3210.