Antihyperlipidemic activity of a unani formulation in high fat diet-induced obese murine model

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (SPER), Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nager, New Delhi 62, India

2 HIMT college of Pharmacy, Gr. Noida (U.P), India


Arq zeera (AZ), a poly herbal unani formulation has been used traditionally as a remedy for reducing body fat and gastric disorder. The current study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic activity of AZ against rat model of high fat diet (HFD) - induced obesity. AZ was prepared and administered orally 7.75 ml/kg/twice a day for 4 weeks to HFD- induced obese rat. Body weight and serum biomarkers were evaluated. Stability testing of AZ was also carried out. At the end of study, HFD significantly (p< 0.001) increased body weight, cholesterol, triglycerides, pancreatic lipase activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as compared to normal diet control group. AZ-treated rats significantly (p< 0.001) reduced body weights, cholesterol, triglycerides, pancreatic lipase activity and MDA levels as compared to HFD control. These results suggest that AZ has an antihyperlipidemic action against HFD-induced obesity in rats, possibly through lipid lowering action, reduction of intestinal absorption of dietary fat, and increased antioxidant defense.

Graphical Abstract

Antihyperlipidemic activity of a unani formulation in high fat diet-induced obese murine model


Main Subjects

Al-Noory, A.S., Amreen, A.N., Hymoor, S., 2013. Antihyperlipidemic effects of ginger extracts in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in (rats). Pharmacognosy. Res. 5, 157-61.

Anonymous., 2001. Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, 425. Paris: OECD.

Anonymous., 2008. Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, 407. Paris: OECD.

Anonymous., 2008. National Formulary of Unani Medicine, Government of India and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (Department of AYUSH). Vol 1, Part (V). p. 138.

Ardekani, M.J., Akbarian, Z., Nazarian, A., 2010. Effects of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) oil on serum glucose and lipid levels of rats. JSSU 19, 388-397.

Cardile, V, Graziano Eleonora, A.C., Venditti, A., 2015. Clinical evaluation of Moro (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) orange juice supplementation for the weight management. Nat. Prod. Res. 29, 2256-2260.

Chan, E.W.C, Lim, Y.Y., Wong, L.F., Lianto, F.S., Wong, S.K., Lim, K.K., Joe, C.E., Lim, T.Y., 2008. Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition properties of leaves and rhizomes of ginger species. Food Chem. 109, 477-483.

Ebrahimzadeh Attari, V., Malek Mahdavi, A., Javadivala, Z., Mahluji, S., Zununi Vahed, S., Ostadrahimi, A., 2017. A systematic review of the anti-obesity and weight lowering effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its mechanisms of action. Phytother Res. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5986.

El Ayed, M., Kadri, S., Smine, S., Elkahoui, S., Limam, F., Aouani, E., 2017. Protective effects of grape seed and skin extract against high-fat-diet-induced lipotoxicity in rat lung. Lipids Health Dis. 16, 174.

Friedewald, W.T., Levy, R.I., Fredrickson, D.S., 1972. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin. Chem. 18, 499-502.

Gupta, P., Mehla, J., Gupta, Y.K., 2012. Antiobesity effect of Saffoof-e-Muhazzil, a Unani herbal formulation, in cafeteria diet induced obesity in rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 50, 776-784.

Han, L.K., Kimura, Y., Kawashima, M., Takaku, T., Taniyama, T., Hayashi, T., Zheng, Y.N., Okuda, H., 2001. Anti-obesity effects in rodents of dietary teasaponin, a lipase inhibitor. Int. J Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 25, 1459-1464.

Haque, M.R, Ansari, S.H., Naquvi, K.J., Najmi, A.K., 2012. Quality assessment of a traditional unani formulation Arq Zeera. J. Pharm. Res. 5, 778-782.

Haque, M.R., Ansari, S.H., Najmi A.K., Ahmad, M.A., 2014. Monoterpene phenolic compound thymol prevents high fat diet induced obesity in murine model. Toxicol. Mech. Methods 24, 115-122.

Haque, M.R., Ansari, S.H., Najmi A.K., Naquvi, K.J., 2012. Validated HPTLC analysis method for quantification of thymol content in Trachyspermum ammi and polyherbal Unani formulation Arq Zeera. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 4, 478-482.

Haque, M.R., Ansari, S.H., Najmi, A.K.,2013. Cuminum cyminum L. fruits distillate ameliorates the high fat diet-induced obesityesity. Pharmacog. Commun. 3, 49-57.

Hasan, S.T., Zingg, J.M., Kwan, P., Noble, T., Smith, D., Meydani, M., 2014. Curcumin modulation of high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis and steatohepatosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerosis 232, 40-51.

Hassan, A., Nauman, M., Anjum, F.M., Hussain, S., Nadeem, M., 2010. Comparative study on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiberofficinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum). J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 8231-8237.

Iacobellis, N.S., Lo Cantore, P., Capasso, F., Senatore, F., 2010. Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 57-61.

Jagtap, A.G., Patil, P.B., 2010. Antihyperglycemic activity and inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation by Cuminum cyminum in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48, 2030-2036.

Javed, I.Z., Iqbal, Z.U., Rahman, F.H., Khan, F., Muhammad, B., Aslam, L.A., 2006. Comparative antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi extracts in albino rabbits Pakistan Vet. J. 26, 23-29.

Kang, J.G., Park, C.Y., 2012. Anti-Obesity Drugs: A review about their effects and safety Diabetes Metab. J. 36, 13-25.

Kazemipoor, M., Radzi, C.W., Hajifaraji, M., Haerian, B.S., Mosaddegh, M.H., Cordell, G.A., 2013. Antiobesity effect of caraway extract on overweight and obese women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 1, 1-8.

Kumar, V., Kushwaha, R., Goyal, A., Tanwar, B., delete Kaur, J., 2018. Process optimization for the preparation of antioxidant rich ginger candy using beetroot pomace extract. Food Chem. 245, 168-177.

Liao, Y.R., Leu, Y.L., Chan, Y.Y., Kuo, P.C., Wu, T.S., 2012. Anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing effects of the constituents of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Molecules 17, 8928-8937.

Madsen, A.N., Hansen, G., Paulsen, S.J., Lykkegaard, K., Christensen, M.T.,Hansen,H.S., Levin, B.E. 2010. Long-term characterization of the diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rat model: a polygenetic rat model mimicking the human obesity syndrome. J. Endocrinol. 206, 287-296.

Mahmoudzadeh, M., Hosseini, H., Nasrollahzadeh, J., Khaneghah, A.M., Rismanchi, M., Chaves, R.D., Shahraz, F., Azizkhani, M., Mahmoudzadeh, L., Haslberger, A.G., 2016. Antibacterial activity of Carum copticum essential oil against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Meat: Stx Genes Expression. Curr. Microbiol. 73, 265-272.

Mohammadhosseini, M., 2017. The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties and medicinal applications of essential oils and extracts of different Ziziphora species. Ind. Crops Prod. 105, 164-192.

 Mohammadhosseini, M., Sarker, S.D., Akbarzadeh, A., 2017. Chemical composition of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea species and their biological activities: A review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 199, 257-315.

Montserrat-de la Paz, S., Garcia-Gimenez, M.D., Quilez, A.M., De la Puerta, R., Fernandez-Arche, A., 2018. Ginger rhizome enhances the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of paracetamol in an experimental mouse model of fibromyalgia. Inflammopharmacology. 10.1007/s10787-018-0450-8.

Neuhofer, A., Wernly, B., Leitner, L., Sarabi, A., Sommer, N.G., Staffler, G., Zeyda, M., Stulnig, T.M., 2014. An accelerated mouse model for atherosclerosis and adipose tissue inflammation. Cardiovasc. Diabetol. 17, 13-23.

Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N., and Yagi, K., 1979. Assay for lipidperoxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituricacid reaction. Anal. Biochem. 95, 351-358.

Romagnoli, C., Andreotti, E., Maietti, S., Mahendra, R., Mares, D., 2010. Antifungal activity of essential oil from fruits of Indian Cuminum cyminum. Pharm. Boil. 7, 834-58.

Sadjadi, N.S., Shahi, M.M., Jalali, M.T., Haidari, F., 2014. Short-term caraway extract administration improves cardiovascular disease risk markers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a dose-response study. J. Diet Suppl. 11, 30-39.

Saleem, U., Riaz, S., Ahmad, B., Saleem, M., 2017. Pharmacological screening of Trachyspermum ammi for antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemia rat model. Pharmacognosy Res. 9, S34-S40.

Salunkhe, V.R., Bhise, S.B., 2001. Formulation development and real time stability studies of herbal oral liquids containing natural sweetener. J. Pharm. Res. 2, 1055-1061.

Samojlik, I., Lakić, N., Mimica-Dukić, N., Daković-Svajcer, K., Bozin, B., 2010. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) (Apiaceae). J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 8848-8853.

Sharifzadeh, A., Shokri, H., 2016. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans. Avicenna J. Phytomed. 6, 215-222.

Shivashankara, A.R., Haniadka, R., Fayad, R., Palatty, P.L., Arora, R., Baliga, M.S., 2013. Hepatoprotective Effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger): A Review.
Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease, pp. 657-671.

Showraki, A., Emamghoreishi, M., Oftadegan, S., 2016. Anticonvulsant effect of the aqueous extract and essential oil of Carum carvi L. seeds in a pentylenetetrazol model of seizure in mice. Iran J. Med. Sci. 41, 200-208.

Singh, A., Ahmad, A., 2017. Antioxidant activity of essential oil extracted by SC-CO₂ from seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. Medicines (Basel) 4, 2-20.

Soni, R., Sharma, G., Jasuja, N.D., 2016. Essential oil yield pattern and antibacterial and insecticidal activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans. Scientifica (Cairo) 1, 1-7.

Thippeswamy, N.B., Akhilender, K., Rajeshwara, N., Achur, N., 2013. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phenolic extract from Carum carvi L. J. Pharm. Res. 7, 352-357.