Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Kings University, Odeomu, Nigeria

2 Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

3 Department of Physiology, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different solvents with different polarities on the antioxidant properties of the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. The phenolics and flavonoids in the extracts were quantified through colorimetric tests, while the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated through the assessments of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging potential. The quantitative evaluations of the phytochemical compositions indicated that there were significant differences (p <0.05) in the amounts of phenolics and flavonoids in the extracts. The antioxidant activities measured by FRAP, TEAC and DPPH• scavenging methods revealed significant (p <0.05) differences amongst the extracts. Methanolic extract was found to have the highest TEAC and FRAP contents with the values of 244.12±21.76mg/100g and 304.78±5.71mg/100g respectively and lowest IC50 value in the results obtained from DPPH• scavenging assay (64.33±2.63µg/ml). The results showed that methanol could be an appropriate extraction solvent for phytomedicines from X. aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich that could be helpful in the treatment and management of free-radical-associated oxidative damage.

Graphical Abstract

Influence of different solvent polarities on the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties of the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich


Main Subjects

Aggarwal, B.B., Shishodia, S., Sandur, S.K., Pandey, M.K., Sethi, G., 2006. Inflammation and cancer: how hot is the link? Biochem. Pharmacol. 72, 1605-1621.
Ames, B.N., Shigenaga, M.K., Hagen, T.M., 1993. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 90, 7915-7922.
Babarinde, G. O., Adegoke, G.O., 2015. Effect of Xylopia aethiopica aqueous extract on antioxidant properties of refrigerated Roma tomato variety packaged in low density polyethylene bags. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52(3), 790-1795.
Burkill, H.M., 1985. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Families A-D. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, p. 960.
Busia, K., 2007. Ghana herbal pharmacopoeia. Science and Technology Policy Research Institute Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, quality PC Ltd., Accra, pp. 30-133.
Camilo, C.J., Alves Nonato, C.d.F., Galvão-Rodrigues, F.F., Costa, W.D., Clemente, G.G., Sobreira Macedo, M.A.C., Galvão Rodrigues, F.F., da Costa, J.G.M., 2017. Acaricidal activity of essential oils: a review. Trends Phytochem. Res. 1(4), 183-198.
Do, Q.D., Angkawijaya, A.E., Tran-Nguyen, P.L., Huynh, L.H., Soetaredjo, F.E., Ismadji, S., Ju, Y.H., 2014. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. J. Food Drug Anal. 22, 296-302.
Ezekwesili, C.N., Nwodo, O.F.C., Eneh, F.U., Ogbunugafor, H.A., 2010. Investigation of the chemical composition and biological activity of Xylopia aethiopica Dunal (Annonacae) Afr. J. Biotech. 9(43), 7352-7356.
Fall, D., Badiane, M., Ba, D., Loiseau, P., Bories, C., Gleye, C., Laurens, A., Hocquemiller, R., 2003. Antiparasitic activities of Senegalese Annonacae used in traditional medicine. Dakar Med. 48(2), 112-116.
Gyamfi, M.A., Yonamine, M., Aaniya, Y., 1999. Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: Thonningia sanguine on experimentally induced liver injuries. Gen. Pharmacol. 32, 661-667.
Kadiri, M., Ojewumi, A., Onstage, T., 2015. Indigenous uses and phytochemical contents of plants used in the treatment of menstrual disorders and after-child birth problems in Abeokuta South local government area of Ogun State. Nig. J. Drug Deliv. Therap. 5(3), 33-42.
Liu, S.C., Lin, J.T., Wang, C.K., Chen, H.Y., Yang, D.J., 2009. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from lychee (Litchi chinenesis Sonn.) flowers. Food Chem. 114,577-81.
Michiels, J.A., Kevers, C., Pincemail, J., Defraigne, J.O., Dommes, J., 2012. Extraction conditions can greatly influence antioxidant capacity assays in plant food matrices. Food Chem. 130, 986-993.
Mohammadhosseini, M., 2017a. Essential oils extracted using microwave-assisted hydrodistillation from aerial parts of eleven Artemisia species: Chemical compositions and diversities in different geographical regions of Iran. Rec. Nat. Prod. 11(2), 114-129.
Mohammadhosseini, M., 2017b. The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties and medicinal applications of essential oils and extracts of different Ziziphora species. Ind. Crops Prod. 105, 164-192.
Mohammadhosseini, M., Sarker, S.D., Akbarzadeh, A., 2017. Chemical composition of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea species and their biological activities: A review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 199, 257-315.
Mohammed, A., Shahidul Islam, M., 2017. Antioxidant potential of Xylopia aethiopica fruit acetone fraction in a type 2 diabetes model of rats. Biomed. Pharmacother. 96, 30-36.
Nwozo, S.O., Oso, B.J., Oyinloye, B.E., 2015. Effect of heat on antioxidant activity of some tropical leafy vegetables. Nig. J. Basic App. Sci. 23(2), 93-101.
Ogunkunle, A.T.S., Ladejobi, T.A., .2006. Ethnobotanical and phytochemical studies on some species of Senna in Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5(21), 2020-2023.
Oso, B.J., Boligon, A.A., Oladiji, A.T., 2018. Metabolomic profiling of ethanolic extracts of the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 7(1), 2083-2090.
Oso, B.J., Oyewo, E.B., Oladiji, A.T., 2017. Ethanolic, n-hexane and aqueous partitioned extracts of Xylopia aethiopica fruit modulated inflammatory responses in turpentine oil induced acute inflammation in male Wistar rats Int. J. Res. Health. Sci. 5(2), 1-10.
Oyaizu, M., 1986. Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxidant activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. J. Nutr. 44, 307-315.
Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M., Rice-evans, C., 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 2, 1231-1237.
Roby, M.H.H., Sarhan, M.A., Selim, K.A.H., Khalel, K.I., 2013. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, total phenols and phenolic compounds in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) extracts. Ind. Crops Prod. 43, 827-831.
Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventos, R.M., 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent. Meth. Enz. 299,152-178.
Sowndhararajan, K., Kang, S.C., 2013. Free radical scavenging activity from different extracts of leaves of Bauhinia vahlii. Wight & Arn. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 20, 319-325.
Tairu, A.O., Hofmann, T., Schieberle, P., 1999. Identification of the key aroma compounds in dried fruit of Xylopia aethiopica. in: Janick, J. (Ed.), Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA., pp. 474-447.
Ye, F., Liang, Q., Li, H., Zhao, G., 2015. Solvent effects on phenolic content, composition, and antioxidant activity of extracts from florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Ind. Crops Prod. 76, 574-581.
Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T., Jianming, W., 1999. The determination of flavonoids contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on super oxides radicals. Food Chem. 64, 555-559.
Złotek, U., Mikulska, S., Nagajek, M., Swieca, M., 2016., The effect of different solvents and number of extraction steps on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 23, 628-633.