Effect of solvent, time and method of extraction on the amounts of phenolic, flavonoid and the antioxidant activity of the extract of Ixiolirion tataricum (Pall.) Schult. & Schult.f.

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bojnourd Branch. Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran


Solvent type, extraction time and method are among important parameters in the evaluation of extraction efficiency. The selection of appropriate conditions to increase the extraction efficiency is of great importance. The response surface method (RSM) is a statistical and mathematical technique which can be used to examine the dependencebetween the responses with variables and also to determine the optimal conditions. In this study, the experimental design of general full factorial (GFF) was used using Minitab 17 software. The variables were time (60, 90 and 120 min), solvent (water, methanol and n-hexane) and method (soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction). The main effects and also interaction terms were investigated on amounts of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and the antioxidant activity (according to IC50, FRAP and BCB) of the extract of Ixiolirion tataricum (Pall.) Schult. & Schult.f.. Under optimal conditions, the best extraction method for the TFC was the ultrasound-based approach, whereas for other responses the soxhlet-based was better. Water was the optimal solvent for TPC, FRAP and BCB, but methanol was found as the best solvent for the determination of TFC and IC50. Also, the extraction time for all of the responses was 90 min. The amounts of TPC, TFC, IC50, FRAP and BCB in the optimum conditions obtained were 22.45 ± 0.60 (mg GAE/g extract), 114.57 ± 1.59 (mg QC/g extract), 0.36 ± 0.08 (mg/mL), 1014.7 ± 12.4 (mmol Fe2+/g extract) and 53.02 ± 0.05, respectively. The R² values for responses were close to unity, which indicates the compatibility between the experimental and the real data. A linear correlation was observed between phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Also, the effect of solvent was more important than time and extraction method on the amounts of TPC, TFC, IC50, FRAP and BCB.

Graphical Abstract

Effect of solvent, time and method of extraction on the amounts of phenolic, flavonoid and the antioxidant activity of the extract of Ixiolirion tataricum (Pall.) Schult. & Schult.f.


Aeschbach, R., Loliger, J., Scott, B.C., Murcia, A., Butler, J., Halliwell, B., Aruoma, O.I., 1994. Antioxidant action of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem. Toxicol. 32(1), 31-36.

Antolovich, M., Prenzler, P.D., Patsalides, E., Mcdonald, S., Robards, K., 2002. Methods for testing antioxidant activity. Analyst 127(1), 183-198.

Azwanida, N.N., 2015. A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation. J. Med. Aromat. Plants 4(3), 196.

Bachcecitapar, M.K., Karadag, O., Aktas, S., 2016. Estimation of sample size and power for general full factorial designs. IJSAS 9, 79-86.

Benzie, I.F.F., 1996. Lipid peroxidation: a review of causes, consequence, measurement and dietary influences. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 47(3), 233-261.

Benzie, I.F., Strain, J.J., 1999. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol. 299, 15-27.

Camilo, C.J., Alves Nonato, C.d.F., Galvão-Rodrigues, F.F., Costa, W.D., Clemente, G.G., Sobreira Macedo, M.A.C., Galvão Rodrigues, F.F., da Costa, J.G.M., 2017. Acaricidal activity of essential oils: a review. Trends Phytochem. Res. 1(4), 183-198.

Chen, F., Sun, Y., Zhao, G., Liao, X., Hu, X., Wu, J., Wang, Z., 2007. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins in red raspherries and identification of anthocyanins in extract using high-performnce liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry. Ultrason Sonochem. 14(6), 767-778.

Chen, K.N., Chen, M.J., 2009. Statistical Optimization: Response Surface Methodology. In: Erdogdu, F., (Ed.), Optimization in Food Engineering. CRC Press, FL, pp. 115-116.

Cheok, C.Y., Chin, N.L., Yusof, Y.A., Law, C.L., 2012. Extraction of total phenolic content from Garcinia mangostana Linn. Hull. I. Effects of solvents and UV-Vis spectrophotometer absorbance method. Food Bioprocess Tech. 5(7), 2934-2940.

Dordoevic, S., Cakic, M., Amr, S., 2000. The extraction of apigenin and luteolin from the sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan. FU Phys. Chem. Tech. 1(5), 87-93.

Estevez, M., Cava, R., 2006. Effectiveness of rosemary essential oil as inhibitor of lipid and protein oxidation: contradictory effects in different types of frankfurters. Meat Sci. 72(2), 348-356.

Falleh, H., Ksouri, R., Lucchessi, M.E., Abdelly, C., 2012. Ultrasound-assisted extraction: effect of extraction time and solvent power on the levels of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Mesembryanthemum edule L. Aizoaceae shoots. Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 11(2), 243-249.

Frankel, E.N., 1991. Recent advances in lipidoxidation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 54(4), 495-511.

Ghalandarnejad, M., Akhgar, M.R., Rejaei, P., 2014. Chemical composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Ixiolirion tataricum (Pall.) Herb. IJABBR 2(1), 105-109.

Katalinic, V., Milos, M., Kulisic, T., Jukic, M., 2006. Screening of 70 medical plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols. Food Chem. 94(4), 550-577.

Kulisic, T., Radonic, A., Katalinic, V., Milos, M., 2004. Use of different methods for testing antioxidative activity of oregano essential oil. Food Chem. 85(4), 633-640.

Mohammadhosseini, M., Sarker, S.D., Akbarzadeh, A., 2017. Chemical composition of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea species and their biological activities: A review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 199, 257-315.

Motallebi Riekandeh, S., Mazandarani, M., Ebrahimzadeh, M.A., Zargari, M., 2016. Antioxidant activities of Eryngium caucasicum inflorescence. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 20(5), 946-949.

Nair, J.J., Staden, J.V., 2013. Pharmacological and toxicological insights to the South African Amaryllidaceae. Food Chem. Toxicol. 62, 262-275.

Nunes, H.S., Miguel, M.G., 2017. Rosa damascena essential oils: a brief review about chemical composition and biological properties. Trends Phytochem. Res. 1(3), 111-128.

Osorio, E.J., Berkov, S., Brun, R., Codina, C., Viladomat, F., Cabezas, F., Bastida, J., 2010. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of alkaloids from Phaedranassa dubia (Amaryllidaceae). Phytochem. Lett. 3 (3), 161-163.

Robards, K., Kerr, A.F., Patsalides, E., 1988. Rancidity and its measurement in edible oils and snack foods: a review. Analyst 113(2), 213-224.

Saha, K., Lajis, N.H., Israf, D.A., Hamazah, A.S., Khozirah, S., Khamis, S., Syahida, A., 2004. Evaluation of antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibitory activities of selected Malaysian medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 92(2-3), 263-267.

Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A., 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16(3), 144-158.

Tamaino, A., Cimino, F., Zimbalatti, V., Venuti, V., Salfaro, V., Pasquale, A.D., Saija, A., 2005. Influence of heating on antioxidant activity and chemical composition of some spice essential oil. Food Chem. 89(4), 549-554.

Theriault, M., Caillet, S., Kermash, S., Lacroix, M., 2006. Antioxidant, antiradical and at mutagenic activity ofphenolic compounds present in maple products. Food Chem. 98(4), 490-501.

Juntachote, T., Berghofer, E., 2005. Antioxidative, properties and stability of ethanolic extracts of Holy Basil and Galangal. Food Chem. 92(2), 193-202.

Velickovic, D.T., Nikolova, M., Ivancheva, S.V., Stojanoviv, J.B., Veljkovic, V.B., 2007. Extraction of flavonoids from garden (Salvia officinalis L.) and glutinous (Salvia glutinosa L.) Sage by ultrasonic and classical maceration. J. Serb. Chem. Soc.72(1), 73-80.

Woisky, R.G., Salation, A., 1998. Analysis of propolis: some parameters and procedures for chemical quality control. J. Apic. Res. 37(2), 99-105.

Zieliński, H., Kozłowska, H., 2000. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48(6), 2008-2016.