Bioactive essential oils from the Cameroonian rain forest: A review - Part I

Document Type: Review article

Authors

1 Department of Chemistry, University of Douala, Faculty of Sciences, 24157 Douala, Cameroon

2 School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, James Parsons Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK

3 Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany

4 Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Science and the Environment, St. John’s Campus. University of Worcester, Henwick Grove, Worcester, WR2 6AJ, UK

Abstract

Forty traditional medicinal plants from the Cameroonian rain forest belonging to twelve families are reviewed related to botanical description, taxonomy, common names, traditional use, essential oil composition as well as bioactivity and toxicity of their essential oils. A correlation is drawn between traditional use and bioactivity in vitro/in vivo, and structures of seventy-three main oil ingredients are given. Collected data indicate that plant essential oils unfold their biological activity related to functional groups of major and minor compounds, in a complex, fine-tuned interaction, modulated by environmental factors like the vegetation cycle of the plant, the altitude and the presence or absence of plant pathogen microbes, certain crop weevils as well as nematodes, varying with climatic seasons. Comparison of traditional use with laboratory results indicates effectivity of a good number of essential oils received from various plant parts, like leaves, bark, fruit, roots and rhizomes against Plasmodium falciparum, food borne microbes, dermatophytes, the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, cancer cell lines, river blindness as well as plant pathogen weevils and fungi. However, toxicological studies are needed before any recommendation for application can be given. Importantly, leaf and fruit oil of Cupressus lusitanica (Cupressaceae) displayed strong acute toxicity in animal model, and the bark oil of Cinnamomum verum (Lauraceae) showed high toxicity in a normal cell line, so that preparations should be applied with care. Preformulation and formulation studies will be needed to develop a range of suitable dosage forms to introduce optimized pharmaceuticals (high active, low toxic) as replacement of current crude plant essential oil preparations in Cameroon and other Subsaharan countries.

Graphical Abstract

Bioactive essential oils from the Cameroonian rain forest: A review - Part I

Keywords


Adebayo, T.A., Gbolade, A.A., Olaifa, J.I., 1999. Comparative study of toxicity of some essential oils to larvae of three mosquito species. Nig. J. Nat. Prod. Med. 3(1), 74-76.

Ahua, K.M., Ioset, J.-R., Ioset, K.N., Diallo, D., Mauel, J., Hostettmann, K., 2007. Antileishmanial activities associated with plants used in the Malian traditional medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol. 110(1), 99-104.

Ainslie, J.R., 1937. A List of Plants Used in Native Medicine in Nigeria. Imperial Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, InstitutePaper No. 7, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Akono, P.N., Mbida, J.A.M., Dongmo, P.M.J., Tonga, C., Tchamga, L.A.D., Mounbain, F., Magne, G.T., Mache, P.N., Kekeunou, S., 2016. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus grandis, Citrus medica and Citrus sinensis leaves from Cameroon on Anopheles gambiae Giles, 1902. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud. 4(6), 17-23.

Al-Shahrani, M.H., Mahfoud, M., Anvarbatcha, R., Athar, M.T., Al Asmari, A., 2017. Evaluation of antifungal activity and cytotoxcicity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil. Pharmacogn. Commn. 7(1), 34-40.

Ambindei, W.A., Jazet, P.M.D., Tatsadieu, L.N., Priya, P., Manilal, V.B., Krishnakumar, B., Zollo, P.H.A., 2017. Effect of the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha piperita on fungal growth and morphology. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 16(9), 388-399.

Aouadhi, C., Simonin, H., Prévost, H., de Lamballerie, M., Maaroufi, A., Mejri, S., 2013. Inactivation of Bacillus sporothermodurans LTIS27 spores by high hydrostatic pressure and moderate heat studied by response surface methodology. Food Sci. Technol. 50(1), 50-56.

Aoudou, Y., Tatsadjieu, N.L., Jazet, D.P.M., Etoa, F.X., Mbofung, C.M., 2010. Antifungal properties of essential oils and some constituents to reduce foodborne pathogen.J. Yeast Fungal Res. 1(1), 1-8.

Aoudou, Y., Tatsadjieu, N.L., Mbofung, C.M., 2011. Mycelia growth inhibition of some Aspergillus and Fusarium species by essential oils and their potential use as antiradical agent. Agric. Biol. J. North Am. 2(11), 1362-1367.

Bakarnga-Via, I., Hzounda, J.B., Fokou, P.V.T., Tchokouaha, L.R.Y., Gary-Bobo, M., Gallud, A., Garcia, M., Walbadet, L., Secka, Y., Dongmo, P.M.J., Boyom, F.F., Menut, C., 2014. Composition and cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich) Benth. and Monodora myristica (Gaertn) growing in Chad and Cameroon. BMC Compl. Altern. Med. 14(125), 1-14.

Bally, P.R.O., 1937. Native medicinal and poisonous plants of East Africa. Bull. Misc. Inf. Roy. Bot. Gard. Bull. Misc. Inf. 1, 10-26.

Barbalho, S.M., Trevisan, S.C.C., Menezes, A.P.P., Guiguer, É.L., Oshiiwa, M., da Silva, V.S., Fiorini, A.M.R., 2017. Metabolic profile and atherogenic indices of rats treated with Tamarindus indica and Mentha piperita juice. Int. J. Phytomed. 9(1), 151-156.

Bassolé, I.H.N., Guelbeogo, W.M., Nébié, R., Costantini, C., Sagnon, N.F., Kabore, Z.I., Traoré, S.A., 2003. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes of essential oils extracted from three spontaneous plants of Burkina Faso. Parasitologia 45(1), 23-26.

Ben Nouri, A., Dhifi, W., Bellili, S., Ghazghazi, H., Aouadhi, C., Chérif, A., Hammami, M., Mnif, W., 2015. Chemical composition, antioxidant potential, and antibacterial activity of essential oil cones of Tunisian Cupressus sempervirens. J. Chem. 1-8.

Betti, J.L., 2004. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants among the Baka pygmies in the Dja biosphere reserve, Cameroon. Afr. Stud. Monogr. 25(1), 1-27.

Bezerra, D.P., Filho, J.DBM., Alves, A.P.N.N., Pessoa, C., de Moraes, M.O., Pessoa, O.D.L., Torres, M.C.M., Silveira, E.R., Viana, F.A., Costa-Latufo, L.V., 2009. Antitumor activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton regelianus and its component ascaridole. Chem. Biodivers. 6(8), 1224-1231.

Biholong, M., 1986. Contribution à l’Etude de la Flore du Cameroun: Les Astéracées. Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Bouda, H., Tapondjou, L.A., Fontem, D.A., Gumedzoe, M.Y.D., 2001. Effect of essential oils from leaves of Ageratum conyzoides, Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata on the mortality of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 37(2), 103-109.

Boukhris, M., Regane, G., Yangui, T., Sayadi, S., Bouaziz, M., 2012. Chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil from Tunisian Cupressus sempervirens L. J. Arid Land Stud., 22(1), 329-332.

Bouquet, A., 1969. Féticheurs et Médecines Traditionnelles du Congo (Brazaville). Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Paris, France.

Bouquet, A., Debray, M., 1974. Plantes Médicinales de la Côte d'Ivoire. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Paris, France.

Boyom, F.F., Ngouana, V., Zollo, P.H.A., Menut, C., Bessière, J.M., Gut, J., Rosenthal, P.J., 2003. Composition and anti-plasmodial activities of essential oils from some Cameroonian medicinal plants. Phytochemistry 64(7), 1269-1275.

Boyom, F.F., Ngouana, V., Kemgne, E.A.M., Zollo, P.H.A., Menut, C., Bessière, J.M., Gut, J., Rosenthal, P.J., 2011. Antiplasmodial volatile extracts from Cleistopholis patens Engler & Diels and Uvariastrum pierreanum Engl. (Engl. & Diels) (Annonaceae) growing in Cameroon. Parasitol. Res. 108(5), 1211-1217.

Brink, M., 2007. Cupressus lusitanica Mill, in: Louppe, D., Oterng-Amoako, A.A., Brink, M. (Eds.), Plant Resources of Tropical Africa, [Internet] Record from Protabase. PROTA (PlantResources of Tropical Africa/Ressources végétales de l'Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands.

Burkill, H.M., 1985. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom.

Cabral, C., Gonçalves, M.J., Cavaleiro, C., Sales, F., Boyom, F., Salgueiro, L., 2009. Composition and anti-fungal activity of the essential oil from Cameroonian Vitex rivularis Gürke. Nat. Prod. Res. 23(16), 1478-1484.

Cardoso, N.N.R., Alviano, C.S., Blank, A.F., de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank, M., Romanos, M.T.V., Cunha, M.M.L., da Silva, A.J.R., Alviano, D.S., 2017. Anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria bonita: mechanisms of action and synergism with amphotericin B and Ocimum basilicum essential oil. Pharm. Biol. 55(1), 1380-1388.

Chekem, M.S.G., Lunga, P.K., Tamokou, J.D.D., Kuiate, J.R., Tane, P., Vilarem, G., Cerny, M., 2010. Antifungal properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides essential oil against Candida species. Pharmaceuticals 3(9), 2900-2909.

Chen, W., Viljoen, A.M., 2010. Geraniol - a review of a commercially important fragrance material. South Afr. J. Bot. 76(4), 643-651.

Cooper, G.P., Record, S.J., 1931. The evergreen forests of Liberia. Bull. Yale Univ., School Forestry 31, 1-153.

Cruz, G.V.B., Pereira, P.V.S., Patrício, F.J., Costa, G.C., Sousa, S.M., Frazao, J.B., Aragao-Filho, W.C., Maciel, M.C.G., Silva, L.A., Amaral, F.M.M., Barroqueiro, E.S.B., Guerra, R.N.M., Nascimento, F.R.F., 2007.Increase of cellular recruitment, phagocytosis ability and nitric oxide production induced by hydroalcoholic extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. J. Ethnopharmacol. 111(1), 148-154.

Dalziel, J.M., Hutchinson, J., 1937. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, First Ed. Crown Agents for the Overseas Colonies, London, United Kingdom.

Danga, Y.S.P., Nukenine, E.N., Esimone, C.O., Younoussa, L., 2014. Larvicidal and pupicidal toxicities of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaf essential oils against three mosquito species. J. Mosq. Res. 4(2), 5-14.

Deba, F., Xuan, T.D., Yasuda, M., Tawata, S., 2008. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils from Bidens pilosa L. var. radiatar. Food Contr. 19(4), 346-352.

Debuigne, G., 2000. Dictionnaire des Plantes qui Guérissent. Librairie Larousse, Paris, France.

Deniz, I.V., 2009. Screening of Traditional Medicinal Plants from Zimbabwe for Phytochemistry, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antiviral and Toxicological Activities. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master of philosophy, School of Pharmacy College of Health Sciences University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe.

Denloye, A.A., Makanjuola, W.A., Teslim, O.K., Alafia O.A., Kasali, A.A., Eshilokun, A.O., 2010. Toxicity of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) products from Nigeria against three storage insects. J. Plant Prot. Res. 50(3), 379-384.

De Pascual, T.J., Torres, B.C., Perez, M.A., 1980. Essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rivista Italiana Essenze. Profiumi Piante Officinali Aromi Cosmetica Aerosol 62, 123-125.

Dongmo, P.M.J., Tchoumbougnang, F., Ndongson, B., Agwanande, W., Sandjon, B., Zollo, P.H.A., Menut, C., 2010. Chemical characterization, antiradical, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the essential oils of Canarium schweinfurthii and Aucoumea klaineana (Burseraceae) growing in Cameroon.Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 1(4), 606-611.

Easmon, J.F., 1891. Remarks on some indigenous native drugs employed in the treatment of disease at the Colonial Hospital in Accra. Economic Agriculture of the Gold Coast. Colonial Rep. 41, 18-40.

Effert, T., Olbrich, A., Sauerbrey, A., Ross, D.D., Gebhart, E., Neugebauer, M., 2002. Activity of ascaridol from the anthelmintic herb Chenopodium anthelminticum L. against sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells. Anticanc. Res. 22 (6C), 4221-4224.

Faulkner, D.F., Lebby, V., Waterman, P.G., 1985. Further diterpenes from stem bark of Xylopia aethiopica. Planta Med. 51(4), 354-355.

Fitsiou, E., Mitropoulou, G., Spyridopoulou, K., Tiptiri-Kourpeti, A., Vamvakias, M., Bardouki, H., Panayiotidis, M.I., Galanis, A., Kourkoutas, Y., Chlichlia, K., Pappa, A., 2016. Phytochemical profile and evaluation of the biological activities of essential oils derived from the Greek aromatic plant species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita. Molecules 21(8), 1069-1084.

Focho, D.A., Ndam, W.T., Fonge, B.A., 2009. Medicinal plants of Aguambu-Bamumbu in theLebialem highlands, southwest province of Cameroon. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharm. 3(1), 1-13.

Galani, Y.J.H., Nguefack, J., Dakole, D.C., Fotio, D., Petchayo, T.S., Fouelefack, F.R., Zollo, A.P.H., 2013. Antifungal potential and phytochemical analysis of extracts from seven Cameroonian plants against late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans.Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2(5), 140-154.

Gardini, F., Belletti, N., Ndagijimana, M., Guerzoni, M.E., Tchoumbougnang, F., Zollo, P.H.A., Micci, C., Lanciotti, R., Kamdem, S.L.S., 2009. Composition of four essential oils obtained from plants from Cameroon, and their bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 3(5), 264-271.

Golob, P., Moss, C., Dales, M., Fidgen, A., Evans, J., Gudrups, I., 1999. The Use of Spices and Medicinals as Bioactive Protectants for Grains. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, I., Rome, Italy.

Goudoum, A., Ngamo, L.S.T., Ngassoum, M.B., Tatsadjieu, L.N., Mbofung, C.M., 2010. Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) sensitivity to repetitive applications of lethal doses of imidacloprid and extracts of Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Plectranthus glandulosus (Lamiaceae). Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 4(4), 1242-1250.

Goudoum, A., Abdou, A.B., Ngamo, L.S., Ngassoum, M.B., Mbofung, C.M.F., 2016. Antioxidant activities of essential oil of Bidens pilosa (Linn. var. radita) used for the preservation of food qualities in North Cameroon. Food Sci. Nutr. 4(5), 671-678.

Goudoum, A., Makambeu, N.A., Bouba, A.A., Ngassoum, M.B., Mbofung, C.M., 2017. Antioxidant potential of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) essential oil as preservation of the physiochemical properties of palm oil during one month. Int. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 6(4), 181-186.

Haerdi, F., 1964. Die Eingeborenen-Heilpflanzen des Ukanga-Distriktes Tanganjikas (Ostafrica). Acta Trop. Suppl. 8, 1-278.

Hammer, K.A., Carson, C.F., Riley, T.V., 1999. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86(6), 985-990.

Hoffman, D., 1996. The Complete IIlustrated Holistic Herbal. Rockport, MA, Element Books Inc., United States of America.

Hüe, T., Cauquil, L., Fokou, J.B.H., Dongmo, P.M.J., Bakarnga-Via, I., Menut, C., 2015. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae. Parasitol. Res. 114(1), 91-99.

Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M., Keay, R.W.J., 1954. Flora of West Tropical Africa.Crown Agents, London, United Kingdom.

Illiassa, N., 2004. Analyse de la Gestion Post-Récolte de Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) et Evaluation de l’Importance Insecticide des Huiles Essentielles de Trois Plantes Aromatiques. Mémoire de maîtrise en Biologie Animale,Faculté des Sciences, Université de Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon.

Innocent, E., Hassanali, A., 2015. Constituents of essential oils from three plant species used in traditional medicine and insect control in Tanzania. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants21(3), 219-229.

Irvine, F.R., 1961. Woody Plants of Ghana with Special Reference to Their Uses. Oxford University Press, Oxford, Uniterd Kingdom.

Iwu, M.M., 2014. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants.CRC Press, Boca Raton, United States of America.

Jardim, C.M., Jham, G.N., Dhingra, O.D., Freire, M.M., 2008. Composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of the Brazilian Chenopodium ambrosioides L. J. Chem. Ecol. 34(9), 1213-1218.

Jiofack, T., Fokunang, C., Guedje, N,, Kemeuze, V., Fongnzossie, E., Nkongmeneck, B.A., Mapongmetsem, P.M., Tsabang, N., 2010. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants of two ethnoecological regions of Cameroon. Int. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2(3), 60-79.

Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Puschmann, C., Ngassoum, M.B., 2000. Investigations of aromatic plants from Cameroon: analysis of the essentials oils of flowers of Hyptis spicigera (Linn.) Poit. by GC, GC/MS and olfactometry. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 3(2), 71-77.

Kamte, S.L.N., Ranjbarian, F., Campagnaro, G.D., Nya, P.C.B., Mbuntcha, H., Woguem, V., Womeni, H.M., Tapondjou, L.A., Giordani, C., Barboni, L., Benelli, G., Cappellacci, L., Hofer, A., Petrelli, R., Maggi, F., 2017. Trypanosoma brucei inhibition by essential oils from medicinal and aromatic plants traditionally used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus). Int. J. Environ. Res. Publ. Health 14(7), 737-753.

Kaou, A.M., Mahiou-Leddet, V., Hutter, S., Ainouddine, S., Hassani, S., Yahaya, I., Azas, N., Ollivier, E., 2008. Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharm. 116(1), 74-83.

Karunamoorthi, K., Hailu, T., 2014. Insect repellent plants traditional usage practices in the Ethiopian malaria epidemic-prone setting: an ethnobotanical survey. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 10(1), 1-22.

Kéita, S.M., Vincent, C., Schmit, J.-P., Arnason, J.T., Bélanger, A., 2001. Efficacy of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and O. gratissimum L. applied as an insecticidal fumigant and powder to control Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [Coleoptera: Bruchidae]. J. Stored Prod. Res. 37(4), 339-349.

Kerharo, J., Adam, J.C., 1974. La Pharmacopée Sénégalaise Traditionnelle: Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques, Editions Vigot frères, Paris, France.

Khallaayoune, K., Biron, J.M., Chaoui, A., Duvallet, G., 2009. Efficacy of 1% geraniol (Fulltec®) as a tick repellent. Parasite 16(3), 223-226.

Kishore, N., Chansouria, J.P.N., Dubey, N.K., 1996. Antidermatophytic action of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides and an ointment prepared from it. Phytother. Res. 10(5), 453-455.

Koné, M., Kamanzi, A., Traoré, D., 2002. Plantes et médecine traditionnelle dans la région de Ferkessédougou (Côte d'Ivoire). Ann. Bot. Afr. Ouest 2, 13-23.

Kouninki, H., Haubruge, E., Noudjou, F.E., Lognay, G., Malaisse, F., Ngassoum, M.B., Goudoum, A., Mapongmetsem, P.M., Ngamo, L.S., Hance, T., 2005. Potential use of essential oils from Cameroon applied as fumigant or contact insecticides against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).Commun. Agric. Appl. Biol. Sci. 70(4), 787-792.

Kouninki, H., Hance, T., Noudjou, F.A., Lognay, G., Malaisse, F., Ngassoum, M.B., Mapongmetsem, P.M., Ngamo, L.S.T., Haubruge, E., 2007a. Toxicity of some terpenoids of essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica from Cameroon against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. J. Appl. Entomol. 131(4), 269-274.

Kouninki, H., Ngamo, L.S.T., Hance, T., Ngassoum, M.B., 2007b. Potential use of essential oils from local Cameroonian plants for the control of red flour weevil Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 7(5), 1-15.

Kuiate, J.-R., Tsona, A.A., Foko, J., Bessière, J.M., Menut, C., Zollo, P.-H.A., 2005. Chemical composition and in vitro antifungal properties of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. from Cameroon. J. Essent. Oil Res. 17(3), 261-264.

Kuiate, J.-R., Bessière, J.M., Zollo, P.H.A., Kuate, S.P., 2006a. Chemical composition and antidermatophytic properties of volatile fractions of hexanic extract from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. from Cameroon. J. Ethnopharm. 103(2), 160-165.

Kuiate, J.R., Bessière, J.M., Vilarem, G., Zollo, P.H.A., 2006b. Chemical composition and antidermatophytic properties of the essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. from Cameroon. Flav. Fragr. J. 21(4), 693-697.

Kurmar, R., KumarMishra, A., Dubey, N.K., Tripathi, Y.B. 2007. Evaluation of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity. Int. J. Food. Microbiol. 115(2), 159-164

Lambert, J..D.H, Gale, J., Arnason, J.T., Philogene, B.J.R., 1985. Bruchid control with traditionally used insecticidal plants Hyptis spicigera and Cassia nigricans. Int. J. Trop. Insect Sci. 6(2), 167-170.

Langsi, D.J., Nukenine, E.N., Fokunang, C.N., Suh, C., Goudoungou, W.J., 2017. Potentials of essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Cupressus sempervirens L. against stored maize pest, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud. 5(2), 309-313.

Lembé, D.M., Bend, E.F., Oundoum, P.C.O., Domkam, J., Njila, M.N., Koloko, T., Gonzales, G.F., 2013. Antifertility potential of Helichrysum cameroonense. Phytopharm. 4(3), 669-679.

Le Thomas, A., 1969. Annonacées, in: Aubréville, A. (Ed.), Flore du Gabon, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, pp. 1-371.

Mahajan, V., Rather, I.A., Awasthi, P., Anand, R., Gairola, S., Meena, S.R., Bedi, Y.S., Gandhi, S.G., 2015. Development of chemical and EST-SSR markers for Ocimum genus. Ind. Crops Prod. 63, 65-70.

Mahmood, Z., Ahmed, I., Saeed, M.U.Q., Sheikh, M.A., 2013. Investigation of physico-chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracted from lignin-containing Cupressus sempervirens. BioRes. 8(2), 1625-1633.

Maksimović, Z., Stojanović, D., Sostarić, I., Dajić, Z., Ristić, M., 2008. Composition and radical-scavenging activity of Thymus glabrescens Willd. (Lamiaceae) essential oil. J. Sci. Food Agric. 88(11), 2036-2041.

Malcolm, S.A., Sofowora, E.A., 1969. Antimicrobial activity of selected Nigerian folk remedies and their constituent plants. Lloydia 32(4), 512-517.

Malolo, F.-A.E., Nouga, A.B., Kakam, A., Franke, K., Ngah, L., Flausino Jr.,O., Mpondo, E.M., Ntie-Kang, F., Ndom, J.C., da Silvas Bolzani, V., Wessjohann, L., 2015. Protease-inhibiting, molecular modeling and antimicrobial activities of extracts and constituents from Helichrysum foetidum and Helichrysum mechowianum (Compositae). Chem. Cent. J., 9(32), 2-11.

Mapi, J., 1988. Contribution à l’Etude Ethnobotanique et Analyse Chimique de Quelques Plantes Utilisées en Médecine Traditionnelle Dans la Région de Nkongsamba (Moungo). Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Menut, C., Lamaty, G., Weyerstahl, P., Marschall, H., Seelmann, I., Amvam Zollo, P.H., 1997. Aromatic plants of tropical Central Africa. Part XXXI. Tricyclic sesquiterpenes from the root essential oil ofEchinops giganteus var. lelyi C. D. Adams. Flav. Fragr. J. 12(6), 415-421.

Metuge, J.A., Nyongbela, K.D., Mbah, J.A., Samje, M., Fotso, G., Smith, B.B., Cho-Ngwa, F., 2014a. Anti-Onchocerca activity and phytochemical analysis of an essential oil from Cyperus articulatus L. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 14(233), 1-10.

Metuge, J.A., Smith, B.B., Mbah, J.A., Ntie-Kang, F., Ayimele, G.A., Cho-Ngwa, F., 2014 b. Anti-Onchocerca metabolites from Cyperus articulatus: isolation, in vitro activity and in silico ‘drug-likeness’. Nat. Prod. Bioprosp. 4(4), 243-249.

Misra, L.N., Wouatsa, N.A.V., Kumar, S., Kumar, R.V., Tchoumbougnang, F., 2013. Antibacterial, cytotoxic activities and chemical composition of fruits of two Cameroonian Zanthoxylum species. J. Ethnopharm. 148(1), 74-80.

Mohammadhosseini, M., 2017. The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties and medicinal applications essential oils and extracts if different Ziziphora species. Ind. Crops Prod. 105(1), 164-192.

Mohammadhosseini, M., Akbarzadeh, A., Flamini, G., 2017. Profiling of composition of essential oil and volatiles of Salvia limbata using traditional and advanced techniques and evaluation for biological activities of their extracts. Chem. Biodiv. 14(5) 10.1002/cbdv.201600361.

Monzote, L., García, M., Pastor, J., Gil, L., Scull, R., Maes, L., Cos, P., Gille, L., 2014. Essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and main components: activity against Leishmania, their mitochondria and other microorganisms. Exp. Parasitol. 136(1), 20-26.

Moundipa, P.F., Ngouéla, S., Tchamba, G.A., Njayou, N.F., Chuisseu, P.D.D., Zéléfack, F., Tsamo, E., 2007. Antihepatotoxic activity of Xylopia phloidora extracts on some experimentasl models of liver injury in rats. Int. J. Pharm. 3(1), 74-79.

Najafi, F., Zangeneh, M.M., Tahvilian, R., Zangeneh, A., Amiri, H., Amiri, N., Moradi, R., 2016. In vitro antibacterial efficacy of essential oil of Allium sativum against Staphylococcus aureus. Int. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. Res. 8(12), 2039-2043.

Ndam, L.M., Mih, A.M., Fongod, A.G.N., Tening, A.S., Temenu, N.A., Fujii, Y., 2015a. First record of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae) in Cameroon. J. Bio. Environ. Sci 6(4), 428-434.

Ndam, L.M., Mih, A.M., Tening, A.S., Fongod, A.G.N., Temenu, N.A., Fujii, Y., 2015b. Foliar micromorphology of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae) from Cameroon. Int. J. Curr. Res. 7(7), 18261-18267.

Ndam, L.M., Mih, A.M., Tening, A.S., Fongod, A.G.N., Temenu, N.A., Fujii, Y., 2016. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae Juss.): an unexplored medicinal herb reported from Cameroon. SpringerPlus 5, 264-279.

Ndoye, F.M.-C.F., Tchinang, T.F.K., Nyegue, A.M., Abdou, J.-P., Yaya, A.J.G., Tchinda, A.T., Essame, J.-L.O., Etoa, F.-X., 2016. Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oils of four dietary and medicinal plants from Cameroon. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 16(1), 117-129.

Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African Traditional Medicine: A Dictionary of Plant Use and Applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany.

Ngamo, T.S.L., Ngassoum, M.B., Mapongmestsem, P.M., Noudjou, W.F., Malaisse, F., Haubruge, E., Lognay, G., Kouniki, H., Hance, T., 2007a. Use of essential oils of aromatic plants as protectant of grains during storage. Agric. J. 2(2), 204-209.

Ngamo, T.L.S., Goudoum, A., Ngassoum, M.B., Mapongmetsem, Lognay, G., Malaisse, F., Hance, T., 2007b. Chronic toxicity of essential oils of 3 local aromatic plants towards Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).Afr. J. Agric. Res. 2(4), 164-167.

Ngassoum, M.B., Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Fleischhacker, W., 2001. Investigation of essential oils of Plectranthus glandulosus Hook f. (Lamiaceae) from Cameroon. J. Essent. Oil Res. 13(2), 73-75.

Ngassoum, M.B., Essia-Ngang, J.J., Tatsadjieu, L.N., Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Adjoudji, O., 2003. Antimicrobial study of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum leaves and Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides fruits from Cameroon.Fitoterapia 74(3), 284-287.

Ngassoum, M.B., Ousmaila, H., Ngamo, L.T., Maponmetsem, P.M., Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., 2004. Aroma compounds of essential oils of two varieties of the spice plant Ocimum canum Sims from northern Cameroon. J. Food Comp. Anal. 17(2), 197-204.

Ngassoum, M.B., Ngamo, T.L.S., Ngatanko, I., Tapondjou, L.A., Lognay, G., Malaisse, F., Hance, T., 2007. Chemical composition, insecticidal effect and repellent activity of essential oils of three aromatic plants, alone and in combination, towards Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Nat. Prod. Commun. 2(12), 1229-1232.

Nguefack, J., Leth, V., Avam Zollo, P.H., Mathur, S.B., 2004a. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.Int. J. Food Microbiol. 94(3), 329-334.

Nguefack, J., Budde, B.B., Jakobsen, M., 2004b. Five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon: their antibacterial activity and ability to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Listeria innocua examined by flow cytometry.Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 39(5), 395-400.

Nguefack, J., Nguikwie, S.K., Fotio, D., Dongmo, B., Awam Zollo, P.H., Leth, V., Nkengfack, A.E., Poll, L., 2007a. Fungicidal potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris to control Alternaria padwickii and Bipolaris oryzae, two seed-borne fungi of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Essent. Oil Res. 19(6), 581-587.

Nguefack, J., Torp, J., Leth, V., Dongmo, J.B.L., Fotio, D., Avam Zollo, P.H., 2007b. Effects of plant extracts and chemical fungicide in controlling a rice seed-borne fungus under laboratory and in irrigated cropping system in Ndop-Cameroon. Afr. Crop Sci. Conf. Proc. 8, 791-796.

Nguefack, J., Leth, V., Lekange Dongmo, J.B., Torp, J., Avam Zollo, P.H., Nyasse, S., 2008. Use of three essential oils as seed treatments against seed-borne fungi of Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Am.-Euras. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 4(5), 554-560.

Nguefack, J., Lekange Dongmo, J.B., Dakole, C.D., Leth, V., Vismer, H.F., Torp, J., Guemdjom, E.F.N., Mbeffo, M., Tamgue, O., Fotio, D., Avam Zollo, P.H., Nkengfack, A.E., 2009. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.Int. J. Food Microbiol.131(2/3), 151-156.

Nguefack, J., Tamgue, O., Lekange Dongmo, J.B., Dakole, C.D., Leth, V., Vismer, H.F., Avam Zollo, P.H., Nkengfack, A.E., 2012. Synergistic action between fractions of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against Penicillium expansum. Food Contr. 23(2), 377-383.

Nguemtchouin, M.M.G., Ngassoum, M.B., Ngamo, L.S.T., Gaudu, X., Cretin, M., 2010. Insecticidal formulation based on Xylopia aethiopica essential oil and kaolinite clay for maize protection. Crop Protec. 29(9), 985-991.

Nguemtchouin, M.G.M., Ngassoum, M.B., Chalier, P., Kamga, R., Ngamo, L.S.T., Cretin, M., 2013. Ocimum gratissimum essential oil and modified montmorillonite clay, a means of controlling insect pests in stored products. J. Stored Prod. Res. 52(1), 57-62.

Nishiyama, Y., Moriyasu, M., Ichimaru, M., Iwasa, K., Kato, A., Mathenge, S.G., Mutiso, P.B.C., Juma, F.D., 2010. Antinociceptive effects of the extracts of Xylopia parviflora bark and its alkaloidal components in experimental animals. J. Nat. Med. 64(1), 9-15.

Nlôga, A.M.N., Saotoing, P., Tchouankeu, J.C., Messi, J., 2007. Effect of essential oils of six local plants used insecticide on adults of Anopheles gambiae, Giles 1902. J. Entomol. 4(6), 444-450.

Norris, E.J., Gross, A.D., Dunphy, B.M., Bessette, S., 2015. Comparison of the insecticidal characteristics of commercially available plant essential oils against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 52(5), 993-1002.

Noudjou, F., Kouninki, H., Ngamo, L.S.T., Maponmestsem, P.M., Ngassoum, M., Hance, T., Haubruge, E., Malaisse, F., Marlier, M., Lognay, G.C., 2007. Effect of site location and collecting period on the chemical composition of Hyptis spicigera Lam. an insecticidal essential oil from North-Cameroon. J. Essent. Oil Res. 19(6), 597-601.

Ntonga, P.A., Baldovini, N., Mouray, E., Mambu, L., Belong, P., Grellier, P., 2014. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus S.S. Parasite 21(33), 1-8.

Nukenine, E.N., Mebanga, A.S., Nlôga, A.M.N., Fontenille, D., Nchoutpouen, E., Tepamdi, M., 2003. Culicid Diversity and Plant Materials Used as Mosquito Repellents in Northern Cameroon. Paper presented at the 15th Conference of the African Association of Insect Scientists (AAIS) and the Entomological Society of Kenya, Book of Abstracts, Nairobi, Kenya.

Nukenine, E.N., Adler, C., Reichmuth, C., 2010. Bioactivity of fenchone and Plectranthus glandulosus oil against Prostephanus truncatus and two strains of Sitophilus zeamais.J. Appl. Entomol. 134(2), 132-141.

Nyegue, M.A., Ndoyé-Foe, F.M.-C., Essama, R.S., Hockmeni, T.C., Etoa, F.-X., Menut, C., 2014. Chemical composition of essential oils of Eugenia caryophylla and Mentha sp cf piperita and their in vitro antifungal activities on six human pathogenic fungi. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 11(6), 40-46.

Nyegue, M.A., Del Florence, M.N.E., Ndoyé-Foe, F., Etoa, F.-X., Menut, C., 2017. Bioactivity of essential oils from medicinal plants of Cameroon and their combination against infant diarrhea induced by bacteria. Afr. J. Trad. Complement. Altern. Med. 14(6), 27-37.

Odugbemi, T., 2008. A Textbook of Medicinal Plants from Nigeria. University of Lagos Press, Lagos, Nigeria.

Okwu, D.E., 2001. Evaluation of the chemical composition of indigenous spices and flavouring agents. Glob. J. Pure Appl. Sci. 7(3), 455-459.

Oliver, B., 1960. Medicinal Plants in Nigeria. University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Oliver-Bever, B., 2009. Medicinal Plants in West Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Ososki, A.L., Lohr, P., Reiff, M., Balick, M.J., Kronenberg, F., Fugh-Berman, A., O´Connor, B., 2002. Ethnobotanical literature survey of medicinal plants in the Dominican Republic used for women’s health conditions. J. Ethnopharm. 79(3), 285-298.

Ousman, A., Ngassoum, M.B., Essia-Ngang, J.J., Ngamo, L.S.T., Ndjouenke, R., 2007. Insecticidal activity of spicy plant oils against Sitophilus zeamais in stored maize in Cameroon. Agric. J. 2(2), 192-196.

Pandey, A.K., Palni, U.T., Tripathi, N.N., 2014. Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds. J. Food Sci Technol. 51(12), 4066-4071.

Pavela, R., Maggi, F., Mbuntcha, H., Woguem, V., Fogang, H.P.D., Womeni, H.M., Tapondjou, L.A., Barboni, L., Nicoletti, M., Canale, A., Benelli, G., 2016. Traditional herbal remedies and dietary spices from Cameroon as novel sources of larvicides against filariasis mosquitoes? Parasitol. Res. 115(12), 4617-4626.

Pavela, R., Maggi, F., Lupidi, G., Mbuntcha, H., Woguem, V., Womeni, H.M., Barboni, L., Tapondjou, L.A., Benelli, G., 2017. Clausena anisata and Dysphania ambrosioides essential oils: from ethno-medicine to modern uses as effective insecticides. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 1-11.

Pavunraj, M., Ramasubbu,G., Baskar, K., 2017. Leucas aspera (Willd.) L.: Antibacteria, antifungal and mosquitocidal activities. Trends Phytochem. Res. 1(3), 135-142

Perry, L.M., Metzger, J., 1980. Medicinal Plants of East and South East Asia: Attributed Properties and Uses. MIT Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Pollack. Y., Segal, R., Golenser, J., 1990. The effect of ascaridole on the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitol. Res. 76(7), 570-572.

Quattrocchi, U., 2013. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set). CRC Press, Boca Raton, United States of America.

Raponda-Walker, A., 1952. Usages Pharmaceutiques des Plantes Spontanées du Gabon. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Paris, France.

Raponda-Walker, A.A., 1953. Une plante de la brousse Gabonaise d'importation Anglaise. Rev. Int. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 32, 87-88.

Raponda-Walker, A., Sillans, R., 1961. Les Plantes Utiles du Gabon. Lechevalier, Paris, France.

Rawat, P., Khan, M.F., Kumar, M., Tamarkar, A.K., Srivastava A.K., Arya K.R., Maurya, R., 2010. Constituents from fruits of Cupressus sempervirens. Fitoterapia 81(3), 162-166.

Reddy, D.N., Al-Rajab, A.J., Sharma, M., Moses, M.M., Reddy, G.R., Albratty, M., 2017. Chemical constituents, in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of Mentha × Piperita (peppermint) essential oils. J. King Saud Univ. Sci. 1-19.

Robledo, S.M., Upegui, Y.A., Echeverri, F., Vélez, I.D., 2017. Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity in U937 cells of essential oils from aromatic plants commonly used in traditional medicine. Planta Med. Intern. Open 4(S 01).

Rota, M.C., Herrera, A., Martinez, R.M., Sotomayor, J.A., Jordán, M.J., 2008. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus hyemalis essential oils. Food Contr. 19(7), 681-687.

Sameza, M.L., Tchameni, S.N., Ekoué, J.D.A., Jazet, P.M.D., Tchoumbougnang, F., 2016. Growth inhibition of stored fish (Ethmalosa fimbriata) fungus Aspergillus flavus, exposed to extracted essential oils from Callistemon citrinus and Ocimum canum. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 10(30), 1164-1172.

Sessou, P., Farougou, S., Azokpota, P., Youssao, I., Sohounhloué, D., 2012. In vitro antifungal activities of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Ocimum gratissimum against foodborne pathogens for their use as traditional cheese wagashi conservatives. Res. J. Recent Sci. 1(9), 67-73.

Shirazi, M.T., Gholami, H., Kavoosi, G., Rowshan, V., Tafsiry, A., 2014. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta and Ocimum basilicum essential oils. Food Sci. Nutr. 2(2), 146-155.

Shukla, R., Singh, P., Prakash, B., Dubey, N.K., 2012. Antifungal, aflatoxin inhibition and antioxidant activity of Callistemon lanceolatus (Sm.) sweet essential oil and its major component 1,8-cineole against fungal isolates from chickpea seeds. Food Contr. 25(1), 27-33.

Silva, V.A., Sousa, J.P., Guerra, F.Q.S., Pessôa, H.L.F., Freitas, A.F.R., Alves, L.B.N., Lima, E.O., 2015. Antibacterial activity of Ocimum basilicum essential oil and linalool on bacterial isolates of clinical importance. Int. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. Res. 7(6), 1066-1071.

Snoussi, M., Dehmani, A., Noumi, E., Flamini, G., Papetti, A., 2016. Chemical composition and antibiofilm activity of Petroselinum crispum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils against Vibrio spp. strains. Microb. Pathog. 90, 13-21.

Soares, M.H., Dias, H.J., Vieira, T.M., de Souza, M.G.M., Cruz, A.F.F., Badoco, F.R., Nicolella, H.D., Cunha, W.R., Groppo, F.R., Martins, C.H.G., Tavares, D.C., Magelhaes, L.G., Crotti, A.E.M., 2017. Chemical composition, antibacterial, schistosomicidal, and cytotoxic activities of the essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants (Chenopodiaceae). Chem. Biodiv. 14(8), 1-10.

Sofowora, A., 1984. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York, United States of America.

Tagne, A., Feujio, T.P., Sonna, C., 2008. Essential Oil and Plant Extracts as Potential Substitutes to Synthetic Fungicides in the Control of Fungi. ENDURE International Conference 2008, Diversifying Crop Protection, 12-15 October 2008, Oral Presentation, La Grande-Motte, France.

Tapondjou, A.L., Bouda, H., Fontem, D.A., Zapfack, L., Lontsi, D., Sondengam, B.L., 2000. Local plants used for traditional stored product protection in the Menoua devision of the Western highlands of Cameroon. Integr. Protec. Stored Prod. IOCB Bull. 23(10), 73-77.

Tapondjou, L.A., Adler, C., Bouda, H., Fontem, D.A., 2002. Efficacy of powder and essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves as post-harvest grain protectants against six stored product beetles.J. Stored Prod. Res. 38(4), 395-402.

Tapondjou, L.A., Adler, C., Bouda, H., Fontem, D.A., 2003. Bioefficacité des poudres et des huiles essentielles des feuilles de Chenopodium ambrosioides et Eucalyptus saligna à l´égard du bruche du niébé, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera, Bruchidae).Cah. Agric. 12(6), 401-407.

Tapondjou, A.L., Adler, C., Fontem, D.A., Bouda, H., Reichmuth, C., 2005. Bioactivities of cymol and essential oils of Cupressus sempervirens and Eucalyptus saligna against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium confusum du Val. J. Stored Prod. Res. 41(1), 91-102.

Tatsadjieu, N.L., Etoa, F.-X., Mbofung, C.M.F., Ngassoum, M.B., 2008. Effect of Plectranthus glandulosus and Ocimum gratissimum essential oils on growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 production. Tropicul. 26(2), 78-83.

Tatsadjieu, N.L., Yaouba, A., Nukenine, E.N., Ngassoum, M.B., Mbofung, C.M.F., 2010. Comparative study of the simultaneous action of three essential oils on Aspergillus flavus and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Food Contr. 21(2), 186-190.

Tchoumbougnang, F., Avam Zollo, P.H., Dagne, E., Mekonnen, Y., 2005. In vivo antimalarial activity of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum on mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Planta Med. 71(1), 20-23.

Tchoumbougnang, F., Dongmo, P.M.J., Sameza, M.L., Mbanjo, E.G.N., Fotso, G.B.T., Zollo, P.H.A., Menut, C., 2009. Larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae Giles and chemical composition of essential oils from four plants cultivated in Cameroon. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 13(1), 77-84.

Tchoumbougnang, F., Lambert, S.M., Dongmo, J.P.M., Mbanjo, N.E.G., Boyom, F.F., Ngoko, Z., Zollo, A.P.H., Menut, C., 2010. Composition, radical scavenging and antifungal activities of essential oils from 3 Helichrysum species growing in Cameroon against Penicillium oxalicum a yam rot fungi. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 4(7), 121-127.

Tedonkeng, P.E., Amvam Zollo, P.H., Tendonkeng, F., Kana, J.R., Fongang, M.D., Tapondjou, L.A., 2004a. Composition chimique et effet acaricide des huiles essentielles des feuilles de Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robins. et d´Eucalyptus saligna Smith. sur les tiges (Rhipicephalus lunulatus Neumann) de la chèvre naine de Guinée dans l'Ouest-Cameroun. Livestock Res. Rur. Dev. 16(9), 1-9.

Tedonkeng, E.P, Tendonkeng, F., Kana, J.R., Tenekeu, G., Tapondjou, L.A., Payne, V.K., 2004b. The acaricidal effect of the essential oil of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. flowers on ticks (Rhipicephalus lunulatus) in Cameroon.South Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 34(5), 244-247.

Tedonkeng, E.P., Tendonkeng, F., Kana, J.R., Payne, V.K., Boukila, B., Lemoufouet, J., Miegoue, E., Nanda, A.S., 2005. A study of the acaricidal properties of an essential oil extracted from the leaves of Ageratum houstonianum.Vet. Parasitol. 128(3/4), 319-323.

Tegang, A.S, Beumo, T.M.N., Dongmo, P.M.J., Ngoune, L.T., 2017. Essential oil of Xylopia aethiopica from Cameroon: chemical composition, antiradical and in vitro antifungal activity against some mycotoxigenic fungi. J. King Saud Univ. Sci. 1-6.

Teke, G.N., Kemadjou, N.E., Kuiate, J.R., 2013. Chemical composition, antimicrobial properties and toxicity evaluation of the essential oil of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. leaves from Cameroon.BMC Complem. Altern. Med. 13(1), 1-9.

Tene, M., Tane, P., Sondengam, B.L., Connolly, J.D., 2004. Lignans from the roots of Echinops giganteus. Phytochemistry 65(14), 2101-2105.

Tisserant, P.C., 1950. Catalogue de la Flore de l´Oubangui Chari. Mémoires de l´Institui d´Etudes Centrafricaines, Imprimerie P. Julia, Brazzaville, Congo.

Torizuka K., 1998. Basic lecture of kampo medicine: pharmacological effect of cinnamon. Kampo Med. 11, 431-436.

Tsabang, N., Fokou, P.V.T., Tchokouaha, L.R.Y, Noguem, B., Bakarnga-Via, I., Nguepi, M.S.D., Nkongmeneck, B.A., Boyom, F.F., 2012. Ethnopharmacological survey of Annonaceae medicinal plants used to treat malaria in four areas of Cameroon. J. Ethnopharm. 139(1), 171-180.

Tsai, M.L., Lin, C.-C., Lin, W.-C., Yang, C.-H., 2011. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from five selected herbs. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 75(10), 1977-1983.

Tsao, S.-M., Hsu, C.-C., Yin, M.-C., 2003. Garlic extract and two diallyl sulphides inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in BALB/cA mice. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 52(6), 974-80.

Unlu, M., Ergene, E., Unlu, G.V., Zeytinoglu, H.S., Vural, N., 2010. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae). Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(11), 3274-3280.

Van Vuuren, S.F., Suliman, S., Viljoen, A.M., 2009. The antimicrobial activity of four commercial essential oils in combination with conventional antimicrobials. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 48(4), 440-446.

Vivien, J., Faure, J.J., 1985. Arbres des Forêts Denses d’Afrique Centrale. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France.

Voundi, S.O., Nyegue, M., Lazar, I., Raducanu, D., Ndoye, F. F., Stamate, M., Etoa, F.-X., 2015. Effect of essential oils on germination and growth of some pathogenic and spoilage spore-forming bacteria. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 12(6), 551-559.

Watt, J.M., Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G., 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa, 2nd Ed. Livingstone, London, United Kingdom.

Weiss, E.A., 2002. Spice Crops. CABI Publishing, New York, United States of America.

Wu, J.-L., Ma, D.-W., Wang, Y.-N., Zhang, H., He, B., Li, Q., Zou, Z.-Y., Feng, J., 2013. Cytotoxicity of essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 12(6), 929-933.

Zollo, P.H.A., Biyiti, L., Tchoumbougnang, F., Menut, C., Lamaty, G., Bouchet, P., 1998. Aromatic plants of tropical Central Africa. Part XXXII. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of thirteen essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon. Flav. Fragr. J. 13(2), 107-114.