Document Type : Original Article


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, PMB 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria


Theobroma cacao L (sterculiaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench, Syn. Sorghum vulgare. Pers (Poaceae) are plants with well-known medicinal properties. Aqueous extracts of the plant blend are being used in the treatment of anaemia caused by the shortage of iron in patients. It is therefore important to investigate the synergetic effects of the blends on their chemical composition. The proximate, phytochemical and mineral composition of the plants and the blend samples containing 50% (w/w) were evaluated using standard procedures. The proximate composition showed that samples contained a high fraction of carbohydrate compared to other parameters; 36.70% for T. cacao, 48.66% for S. bicolor and 73.59% for the blended sample, respectively. The phytochemical composition of the samples showed the presence of medicinally active constituents like alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phlobatannin, flavonoids and cardiac glucosides. The samples showed moderate phytate composition of 18.53 mg/g, 11.74 mg/g and 14.0 mg/g for T. cacao, S. bicolor, and the blended samples, respectively. The study further revealed that the composition of the phytochemicals/antinutrients were temperature dependent. The mineral analysis of the samples showed the presence of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn with a significant amount of Mg (68.20 mg/100g) and Fe (55.10 mg/100g) observed in the blended sample. Our findings support the ethnomedicinal use of the plants in the treatment of anaemia.

Graphical Abstract

Chemical composition of Theobroma cacao L (Sterculiaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench, Syn. Sorghum vulgare Pers (Poaceae)


Abe, M.M.J., Amin, I., 2008. Polyphenols in cocoa and cocoa products: is there a link between antioxidant properties and health?. Molecules 13, 2190-2219.
Adeyeye, I.E., Adesina, A.J., Olatunde, O.C., 2016. Lipid composition of three types of vegetables: Corchorus olitorius, Telferia occidentalis and Amaranthus hybridus, consumed in Nigeria. EC Nutrition. 3(2), 567-581.
Agbaire, P.O., 2011. Nutritional and anti-nutritional levels of some local vegetables (Vernomia anydalira, Manihot esculenta, Telferia occidentalis, Talinum triangulare, Amaranthus spinosus) from Delta State, Nigeria. JASEM15(4),625-628.
Agbor, A.G., Ngogang, Y.J., 2005. Toxicity of herbal preparations. Cam. J. Ethnobot. 1(1), 23-28.
Ahmad, A., Husain, A., Mujeeb, M., Khan, S.A., Najmi, A.K., Siddique, N.A., Damanhouri, A., Anwar, F., 2013. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa; a miracle herb. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 3(5), 337-352.
Akinwunmi, O.A., Omotayo, F.O., 2016. Proximate analysis and nutritive values of ten common vegetables in South -West (Yoruba Land) Nigeria. CAS 4(2), 79-91.
AOAC, (2005): Official Methods of Analysis of Association of Analytical Chemists. AOAC International, 18th Ed; Horrowitz, W. (Ed) Vol. 1 & 2, AOAC International Maryland, USA pp. 774-784.
Asuk, A.A., Agiang, M.A., Dasofunjo, K., Willie, A.J., 2015. The biomedical significance of the phtochemical, proximate and mineral compositions of the leaf, stem bark and root of Jatropha curcas. Asian. Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 8(5), 650-657.
Awe, I.S., Sodipo, O.A., 2001. Purifications of saponins of the root of Blighia sapida. Niger J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 16(3), 201-204.
Awika, J.M., Rooney, L.W., 2004. Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. Phytochemistry 65(9), 1199-1221.
Böhm, В.A., Kocipai-Abyazan, R., 1994. Flavonoid and condensed tannins from leaves of Vaccinum raticulation and Vaccinum calcyimium. Pac. Sci. 48(4), 458-63.
Chiba, M., Tsuji, T., Nakane, K., Komatsu, M., 2015. High amount of dietary fiber not harmful but favorable for Crohn disease. Perm. J. 1(19), 58-61.
De, S., Dey, Y.N., Ghosh, A.K., 2010. Phytochemical investigation and chromatographic evaluation of the different extracts of tuber of Amorphaphallus paeoniifolius (Araceae). Int. J. Pharm. Biol. Res. 1(5), 150-157.
Doughari, J.H., 2012. Phytochemicals: Extraction methods, basic structures and mode of action as potential chemotherapeutic agents. Phytochemicals Venkeeteshwer Rao, Intech Open. 1-32pp. DOI:10.5772/26052.
Ehiabhi, S., Omoregie, H., Comfort, E., Folashade, O., 2012. Phytochemical and proximate analyses and thin layer chromatography fingerprinting of the aerial part of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae). J. Med. Plant. Res. 6(12), 2289-94.
Erenler, R., Demirtas, I., Karan, T., Gul, F., Kayir, O., Karakoc O.C., 2018. Chemical constituents, quantitative analysis and insecticidal activities of plant extract and essential oil from Origanum onites L.. Trends Phytochem. Res. 2(2), 91-96.
Eubanks, L.P., Middlecamp, C.H, Pienta, N.J., Heltzel, C.E., Weaver, G.C., 2006. Chemistry in Context: Applying Chemistry to Society. A Project of the American Chemical Society, 5th Ed, McGraw -Hill Companies Inc, New York, NY 10020, p. 511.
Fasuyi, A.O., Dairo, F.A.S., Adeniji., A.O., 2007. Protein supplementary quality of tropical vegetable (Amaranthus cruentus) leaf meal in broiler starter diets: Bionutritional evaluation. Int. J. Agric. Res.2(12), 976-986.
Geissler, C., Singh, M., 2011. Iron, meat and health. Nutrients 3(3), 283-316.
Georgiev, V., Ananga, A., Tsolova, V., 2014. Recent advances and uses of grape flavonoids as nutraceuticals. Nutrients6(1), 391-415.
Han, W., Segal, A.M., Seifter, J.L., Dwyer, J.T., 2015. Nutritional management of kidney stones. Clin. Nutr. Res.4(3), 137-152.
Harborne, J.B., 1973. Phytochemical Methods:A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall Ltd, London, p. 279.
Imelouane, B., Tahri, M., Elbastrioui, M., Aouinti, F., Elbachiri, A., 2011. Mineral contents of some medicinal and aromatic plants growing in Eastern Morocco. J. Mater. Environ Sci. 2(2), 104-111.
Karker, M., Falleh, H., Msaada, K., Smaoui, A., Abdelly, C., Legault, J., Ksouri, R., 2016. Antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities of the medicinal halophyte Reaumuria vermiculata. EXCLI J. 15, 297-307.
Kumar, V., Sinha, A.K., Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K., 2010. Dietary roles of phytate and phytase in human nutrition: A review. Food Chem.120(4), 945-959.
Lal, H., 2008. A textbook of Biochemistry.1st Ed. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
Makkar, A.O.S., Goodchild, A.V., 1996. Quantification of tannins. A laboratory manual. International centre for agricultural research in the dry areas (ICARDA), Allepo, Syria. pp. 4-25.
Martίnez-Pinilla, E., Astibia, A.O., Franco, R., 2015. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption. Front Pharmacol. 6, 30.
Manske, R.H., Brossi, A., Cordell, G.A., 2007. The Alkaloids. New York Academic Press.
Moghaddam, M., Omidbiagi, R., Naghavi, M.R., 2011. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Iranian accessions of Ocimum spp. using AFLP markers. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 39(4), 619-626.
Mohammadhosseini, M., 2017. Essential oils extracted using microwave-assisted hydrodistillation from aerial parts of eleven Artemisia species: Chemical compositions and diversities in different geographical regions of Iran. Rec. Nat. Prod.11(2), 114-129.
Mohammadhosseini, M., Sarker, S., Akbarzadeh, A., 2017. Chemical composition of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea species and their biological activities: A review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 199, 257-315.
Monteiro, L.D. S., Bastos, K.X., Barbosa-Filho, J.M., deathayde-Filho, P.F., Diniz, M., Dsobral, M.V., 2014. Medicinal plants and other living organisms with antitumor potential against lung cancer. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2014.
Nelson, D.L., Cox, M.M., 2005. Lehninger: Principles of Biochemistry. WH Freeman and Company, New York.
Newman, D.J., Cragg, G.M., Snader, K.M., 2000. The influence of natural products upon drug discovery. Nat. Prod. Rep. 17(3), 215-234.
Noonan, S.C., Savage, G.P., 1999. Oxalate content of foods and its effect on humans. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr.8(1), 64-74.
Nwokonkwo, D.C., Okeke, G.N., 2014. The chemical constituents and biological activities of stem bark extract of Theobroma cacao. Glob. J. Sci. Frontier Res. (E- Interdisciplinary). 14(4), 35-40.
Obadoni, B.O., Ochuko, P.O., 2001. Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Global J. Pure Appl. Sci. 8(2), 203-208.
Oluwalana, I.B., Adedeji, T.O., 2013. Nutritional composition of a non-alcoholic beverage spiced with Zingiber officinale extract produced from Sorghum bicolor Stem Sheath. Intern. J Food Sci. Nutr. Eng. 3(3), 21-27.
Ojong, L.J., Abdou, J.P., Kandeda, A.K., Yaya, A.J.G., Tchamgoue, A.D., Tchokouaha, L.R.Y., Nkantchoua, N.G.C., Agbor, G.A., Moyou, R. S., Ngo, E.B., 2016. Anticonvulsant and in vitro antioxidant activities of Momordica cissoides L. (Cucurbitaeae). J. App. Pharm. Sci. 6(4), 117-123.
Rahmatollah, R., Mahbobeh, R., 2010. Mineral contents of some plants used in Iran. Pharmacog. Res. 2(4), 267-271.
Shamsuddin, A.M., 2002. Anti-cancer function of phytic acid. Intern. J. Food Sci. Tech.37(7), 769-782.
Smolinski, M.S., Hamburg, M.A. Smolinski, M.S., 2003. Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection and Response. National Academic Press,Washington, D.C.
Syed, D.N., Chamcheu, J., Adhami, V.M., Mukhtar, H., 2013. Pomegranate extracts and cancer prevention: molecular and cellular activities. Anticancer Agents Med. Chem.13(8), 1149-1161.
Wardlaw, G.M., Hampl, J.S., DiSilvestro, R.A., 2004. Perspectives in Nutrition.6th Ed. McGraw Hill, New York.
Yadav, R.N.S., Agarwala, M., 2011. Phytochemical Analysis of Some Medicinal Plants. J. Phytol. 3(12), 10-14.