Sonneratinone: A new antimicrobial benzofuranone derivative from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger isolated from the mangrove plant Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham


1 Centre for Natural Products Discovery, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, James Parsons Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, United Kingdom

2 Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh

3 Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Institute of Experimental Botany ASCR & Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, 78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic

4 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Division, BCSIR Laboratories, Dhaka, Bangladesh


A new antimicrobial benzofuranone derivative, named, sonneratinone (1), was isolated from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger, obtained from the leaves of Sonneratia apetala, a mangrove plant from the Sundarbans. Whilst the fungal strain was identified by macroscopic, microscopic and molecular techniques, the structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means, e.g., 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS. Sonneratinone (1) showed considerable antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans in the resazurin 96-well microtitre plate antimicrobial assay.

Graphical Abstract

Sonneratinone: A new antimicrobial benzofuranone derivative from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger isolated from the mangrove plant Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham


Bandaranayake, W.M., 1995. Survey of mangrove plants from northern Australia for phytochemical constituents and UV-absorbing compounds. Curr. Top. Phytochem. 14,69-78.

Cao, L-L., Tian, H-Y., Wang, Y-S., Zhou, X-F., Jiang, R-W., Liu, Y-H., 2015. Chemical constituents in the fruits of mangrove plant Sonneratia apetala Buch-Ham. J. Trop. Oceanography 34, 77-82.

Damm, U., Woudenberg, J.H.C., Cannon, P.F., Crous, P.W., 2009. Colletotrichum species with curved conidia from herbaceous hosts. Fungal Divers. 39, 45-87.

Damm, U., Baroncelli, R., Cai, L., Kubo, Y., O’Connell, R., Weir, B., Yoshino, K., Cannon, P.F., 2010. Colletotrichum: species, ecology and interactions. IMA Fungus 1, 161-165.

Das, S., Siddiqi, N.A., 1985. The mangrove and mangrove forests of Bangladesh. Mangrove Silviculture Division, Bulletin No. 2. BFRI and UNDP/FAO project, BGD/79/017, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Duke, N.C., Benzie, J.A.H., Goodall, J.A., Ballmen, T.R., 1998. Genetic structure and evolution of species in the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in the indo-west pacific. Evolution52(6), 1612-1626.

Field, C.D., 1995. Journey Amongst Mangroves. International Society for Mangroves Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.

Hossain, S.J., Iftekharuzzaman, M., Haque, M.A., Saha, B., Moniruzzaman, M., Hossain, H., 2016. Nutrient compositions, antioxidant activity, and common phenolics of Sonneratia apetala (Buch.-Ham) fruit. Int. J. Food Properties 19, 1080-1092.

Hossain, S.J., Islam, M.R., Pervin, T., Iftekharuzzaman, M. Hamdi, O.A.A., Mubassara, S., Saifuzzaman, M., Shilpi, J.A., 2017. Antibacterial, anti-diarrhoeal, analgesic, cytotoxic activities and GC-MS profiling of Sonneratia apetala (Buch.-Ham.) seed. Prev. Nutr. Food Sci. 22, 157-165.

Lear, R., Turner, T., 1977. Mangroves of Australia. University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, Australia.

Nurunnabi, T.R., Nahar, L., Al-Majmaie, S., Rahman, S.M.M., Sohrab, M.H., Billah, M.M., Ismail, F.M.D., Rahman, M.M., Sharples, G.P., Sarker, S.D., 2017. Anti-MRSA activity of oxysporone and xylitol from the endophytic fungus Pestalotia sp. growing on the Sundarbans mangrove plant Heritiera fomes. Phytotherap.Res. 32, 348-354.

Nurunnabi, T.R., Al-Majmaie, S., Nakouti, I., Nahar, L., Rahman, S.M.M., Sohrab, M.H., Billah, M.M., Ismail, F.M.D., Sharples, G.P., Sarker, S.D., 2018. Antimicrobial activity of kojic acid from endophytic fungus Colletitrichum gloeosporioides isolated from Sonneratia apetala, a mangrove plant of the Sundarbans.Asian J. Trop. Med. 11, 350-354.

Ren, H., Lu, H., Shen, W., Huang, C., Guo, Q., Li, Z., Jian, S., 2009. Sonneratia apetala Buch. Ham in the mangrove ecosystem of China: An invasive species or restoration species? Ecol. Eng. 35, 1243-1248.

Sarker, S.D., Nahar, L., Kumarasamy, Y., 2007. Microtitre plate-based antibacterial assay incorporating resazurin as an indicator of cell growth, and its application in the in vitro antibacterial screening of phytochemicals. Methods 42, 321-324.

Sette, L., Passarini, M., Delarmelina, C., Salati, F., Duarte, M., 2006. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from coffee plants. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22(11), 1185-1195.

Tomlinson, P.B., 1986. The Botany of Mangrove. Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, New York.

Vadlapudi, V., Borah, N., Yellusani, K.R., Gade, S., Reddy, P., Rajamanikyam, M., L. Vempati, N.S., Gubbala, S.P., Chopra, P., Upadhyayula, S.M., Amanchy, R., 2017. Aspergillus secondary metabolite database, a resource to understand the secondary metabolome of Aspergillus genus. Sci. Rep. 7, 7325.

Zabala, N.Q., 1990. Silviculture of Species. Field document no. 14. Development of Professional Education in the Forestry Sector of Bangladesh. UNDP/ FAO ProjectBGD/85/011.