Document Type : Original Article


1 Instituto de Química San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis, Argentina

2 Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra y Ambientales de La Pampa (INCITAP-CONICET), Mendoza 109, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina

3 Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UNLPam), Av. Uruguay 151, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina


A multivariate analysis was performed on sunflower, poppy and pumpkin seeds based on the analysis of 18 elements including Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Si, Sr, Ti, and Zn which were quantified using microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES). To avoid geographical effects, all samples were collected from the same region -San Luis province, Argentina- from 2016 to 2017. In order to determine differences in the mineral profiles as well as to get information from its mineral status, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied. In accordance with this study, toxic elements as pb, cd and as were not detected in the analyzed species, which is a remarkable point compared with other regions around the world. Furthermore, high levels of non-essential nutrients (Al, Ba and Sr) as well as those considered as beneficial non-essential nutrients (Si and Ti) were found in poppy. Applying multivariate analysis -performed by principal components analysis, PCA- it was possible to discriminate groups of seeds according to their botanical origins. Furthermore, PCA allowed inferring about the effect on seed quality due presence of Al, Ba or Sr, as well as the selectivity mechanisms of mineral uptake and filling seed and the differential performance of seeds for initial plant growth -due Si and Ti content- on the three studied species. For these reasons, multivariate analysis has been useful as an informative tool for ionomic and plant development studies.


Main Subjects

Adrees, M., Ali, S., Rizwan, M., Zia-ur-Rehman, M., Ibrahim, M., Abbas, F., Farid, M., Qayyum, M.F., KashifIrshad, M., 2015. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of heavy metal toxicity in plants: a review. Ecotox. Environ. Safe. 119, 186-197.
Aguilar, E.G., Albarracín, G.J., Uñates, M.A., Piola, H.D., Camiña, J.M., Escudero, N.L., 2015. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of the grain protein of new amaranths varieties. Plant Food Hum. Nut. 70(1), 21-26.
Aguilar, E.G., Cantarelli, M.A., Marchevsky E.J., Escudero, N.L., Camiña, J.M., 2011. Multi-elemental analysis and classification of amaranth seeds according to their botanical origin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59(17), 9059-9064.
Albuquerque, T.G., Costa, H.S., Sanches-Silva, A., Santos, M., Trichopoulou, A., D’Antuono, F., Alexieva, I., Boyko, N., Costea, C., Fedosova, K., Karpenko, K., Kilasonia, Z., Koçaoglu, B., Finglas, P., 2013. Traditional foods from the Black Sea region as a potential source of minerals. J. Sci. Food Agric. 93(14), 3535-3544.
Baxter, I., 2009. Ionomics: studying the social network of mineral nutrients. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 12(3), 381-386.
Cabrera, C., Lloris, F., Gimenez, R., Olalla, M., Lopez, M.C., 2003. Mineral content in legumes and nuts: Contribution to the Spanish dietary intake. Sci. Total Environ. 308(1-3), 1-14.
Chaves, E.S., dos Santos, E.J., Araujo, R.G., Oliveira, J.V., Frescura, V.L.A., Curtius, A.J., 2010. Metals and phosphorus determination in vegetable seeds used in the production of biodiesel by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Microchem. J. 96(1), 71-76.
Cox, A., Venkatachalam, P., Sahi, S., Sharm, N., 2016. Silver and titanium nanoparticle toxicity in plants: a review of current research. Plant Physiol. Biochem.107, 147-163.
Epstein, E., 2009. Silicon: Its manifold roles in plants. Ann. Appl. Biol. 155(2), 155-160.
Fu, C., Shi, H., Li, Q., 2006. A review on pharmacological activities and utilization technologies of pumpkin. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 61(2), 73-80.
Gemede, H.F., Ratta, N., 2014. Antinutritional factors in plant foods: Potential health benefits and adverse effects. Int. J. Nut. Food Sci. 3(4), 284-289.
Glew, R.H., Glew, R.S., Chuang, L.T., Milson, M., Constants, D., Vanderjagt, D.J., 2006. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger. Plant Food Hum. Nut. 61(2), 51-56.
Gulfen, M., Özdemir, A., 2016. Analysis of dietary minerals in selected seeds and nuts by using ICP-OES and assessment based on the recommended daily intakes. Nutr. Food Sci. 46(2), 282-292.
Hatami, M., Ghorbanpour, M., Salehiarjomand, H., 2014. Nano-anatase TiO2 modulates the germination behavior and seedling vigority of some commercially important medicinal and aromatic plants. J. Biol. Environ. Sci. 8(22), 53-59.
Huang, X.Y., Salt, D.E., 2016. Plant ionomics: from elemental profiling to environmental adaptation. Mol. Plant. 9(6), 787-797.
Joebstl, D., Bandoniene, D., Meisel, T., Chatzistathis, S., 2010. Identification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seed oil by the use of rare earth elements and discriminant analysis. Food Chem. 123(4), 1303-1309.
Juranovic, I., Breinhoelder, P., Steffan, I., 2003. Determination of trace elements in pumpkin seed oils and pumpkin seeds by ICP-AES. J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom. 18(1), 54-58.
Kafaoǧlu, B., Fisher, A., Hill, S., Kara, D., 2014. Chemometric evaluation of trace metal concentrations in some nuts and seeds. Food Addit. Contam. A, 31(9), 1529-1538.
Khan, M.A., Castro-Guerrero, N., Mendoza-Cozatl, D.G., 2014. Moving toward a precise nutrition: preferential loading of seeds with essential nutrients over non-essential toxic elements. Front. Plant Sci. 5, art. 51.
Kirbaşlar, F.G., Turker, G., Özsoy- Guneş, Z., Ünal, M., Dulger, B., Ertaş, E., Kizilkaya, B., 2012. Evaluation of fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, mineral composition and calorie values of some seeds and nuts from Turkey. Rec. Nat. Prod. 6(4), 339-349.
Lyu, S., Wei, X., Chen, J., Wang, C., Wang, X., Pan, D., 2017. Titanium as a beneficial element for crop production. Front. Plant Sci. 8, art. 597.
Maradini Filho, A.M., Pirozi, M.R., Da Silvia Borges, J.T., Pinheiro Sant’Ana, H.M., Paes Chaves, J.B., Dos Reis Coimbra, J.S., 2015. Quinoa: Nutritional, functional and antinutritional aspects. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 57(8), 1618-1630.
Martínez, C., Ros, G., Periago, M.J, López, G., Ortuño, J., Rincón, F., 1996. Phytic acid in human nutrition. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 2(4), 201-209.
Masclaux-Daubresse, C., Chen, Q., Havé, M., 2017. Regulation of nutrient recycling via autophagy. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 39, 8-17.
Moldes, C.A., Lima Filho, O.F., Merini, L.J., Tsai, S.M., Camina, J.M., 2016. Occurrence of powdery mildew disease in wheat fertilized with increasing silicon doses: a chemometric analysis of antioxidant response. Acta Physiol. Plant. 38(8), 206.
Murkovic, M., Piironen, V., Ampi, A.M., Kraushofer, T., Sotag, G., 2004. Changes in chemical composition of pumpkin seeds during the roasting process for production of pumpkin seed oil (Part 1: non-volatile compounds). Food Chem. 84(3), 359-365.
Ozbek, N., Akman, S., 2016. Microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometric determination of Ca, K and Mg in various cheese varieties. Food Chem. 192, 295-298.
Özcan, M.M., 2004. Mineral contents of some plants used as condiments in Turkey. Food Chem. 84, 437-440.
Özcan, M.M., 2006. Determination of mineral compositions of some selected oil-bearing seeds and kernels using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Grasas Aceites 57(2), 211-218.
Ozkutlu, F., 2008. Determination of cadmium and trace elements in some spices cultivated in Turkey. Asian J. Chem. 20(2), 1081-1088.
Pottier, M., Masclaux-Daubresse, C., Yoshimoto, K., Thomine, S., 2014. Autophagy as a possible mechanism for micronutrient remobilization from leaves to seeds. Front. Plant Sci. 5, art. 11.
Pushpangadan, P., George, V., Singh, S.P., 2012. Handbook of Herbs and Spices. (2nd Ed.) Elsevier, Netherlands.
Rezig, L., Chouaibi, M., Msaada, K., Hamdi, S., 2012. Chemical composition and profile characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oil. Ind. Crops Prod. 37(1), 82-87.
Rizwan, M., Ali, S., Ibrahim, M., Farid, M., Adrees, M., Bharwana, S.A., Zia-ur-Rehman, M., Qayyum, M.F., Abbas, F., 2015. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a review. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 22(20), 15416-15431.
Rodushkin, I., Engstrom, E., Sorlin, D., Baxter, D., 2008. Levels of inorganic constituents in raw nuts and seeds on the Swedish market. Sci. Total Environ. 392(2-3), 290-304.
Schneiter, A., 1997. Sunflower technology and production. Am. Soc. Agron. 35, 1-19.
Soylak, M., Colak, H., Turkoglu, O., Dogan, M., 2006. Trace metal content of snacks and appetizers consumed in Turkey. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 76(3), 436-441.