Effect of freeze-drying and spray-drying on total phenolics content and antioxidant activity from aqueous extract of Justicia secunda leaves

Document Type: Original Article


1 Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS), Département des Sciences et Technologie, 08 BP 10 Abidjan 08, Côte d’Ivoire

2 Laboratoire de chimie organique et de substances naturelles (LCOSN), Université de Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d'Ivoire

3 INPHB, Laboratoire des Procédés Industriels, de Synthèse, de l’Environnement et des Energies Nouvelles BP 1093 Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire

4 CIRAD, UMR-110 INTREPID (INTensification Raisonnée et Ecologique pour une Pisculture Durable), TA B 110-16, 73 rue J. F. Breton, 34098 Montpellier cedex 5, France

5 Université Nangui Abrogoua, Laboratoire de Chimie Bio Organique et de Substances Naturelles (LCBOSN), 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Cote d’Ivoire 02


This study aims to evaluate the effect of freeze-drying and spray-drying on total phenolics con­tents and antioxidant capacity from aqueous extract of Justicia secunda leaves. Total pheno­lic compounds extraction procedure consists of using an extraction-concentration procedure performed at three-step process, including ultrasound-assisted water extraction followed by cross-flow microfiltration of the crude extract and its concentration by reverse osmosis. After final step of extraction procedure, a concentrated extract, namely RO extract was obtained. In order to convert RO extract to powder form, two drying methods are used; freeze-drying and spray-drying. The powder obtained by freeze drying, namely P1, presented the higher content of polyphenols (9542 ± 38 μmol.g-1 GAE) and antioxidant capacity (4256 ± 15 μmol.g-1 TE) than that obtained by spray drying and namely P2. The freeze-drying technology could be a good outcome to preserve polyphenols structure and consequently their antioxidant capacity in aqueous extract of J. secunda leaves. Moreover, seven minor phenolic compounds of RO extract were characterized by HPLC coupled to UV/Vis diode array detection and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC/DAD/ESI-MS). There were kaempferol-3-O-coumaroyl gluco­side (10), justiflorinol (14), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (18), apigenin 6-C-glucoside-7-O-rhamno­syl-hexoside (19), quercetin-7-O-glucoside-3-O-rutinoside (20), apigenin-7-O-neohesperido­side (23), and naringenin-7-O-rutinoside (25) among the characterized compounds.

Graphical Abstract

Effect of freeze-drying and spray-drying on total phenolics content and antioxidant activity from aqueous extract of Justicia secunda leaves


Abo, K.J.C., Kouakou, K.L., Yapo, A., 2016. Hypotensive and antihypertensive effects of total aqueous extract of Justicia secunda Vahl M. (Acanthaceae) in Rabbits. Int. J. sci. Res. 5 (5), 1455-1462.

Adjé, A.F., Lozano, F.Y., Le Guernevé, C., Lozano, R.P., Meudec, E., Adima, A.A., Gaydou, E., 2012. Phenolic acid and flavonol water extracts of Delonix regia red flowers. Ind. Crop Prod. 37, 303-310.

Barros, L., Duenas, M., Ferreira, I.C., Maria-Carvalho, A., Santos-Buelga, C., 2011. Use of HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS to profile phenolic compounds in edible wild greens from Portugal. Food Chem. 127(1), 169-173.

Brito, A., Ramirez, J. E., Areche, C., Sepulveda, B., Simirgiotis, M.J., 2014. HPLC-UV-SM profiles of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of fruit from three Citrus species consumed in Northern Chile. Molecules 19, 17400-17421

Cabanillas, B.J., Lamer, A.C., Castillo, D., Arevalo, J.A., Rojas, R., Odonne, G., Bourdy, G., Moukarzel, B., Sauvain, M., Fabre, N. 2010. Caffeic acid esters and lignans from Piper sanguineispicum. J. Nat. Prod.73(11), 1884-1890.

Chedea, V. S., Echim, C., Braicu, C., Andjelkovic, M., Verhe, R., Socaciu, R., 2011. Composition in polyphenols and stability of the aqueous grape seed extract from the Romanian variety Merlot recas. J. Food Biochem. 35(1), 92-108.

Egamberdieva, D., Mamedov, N., Ovidi, E., Tiezzi, A., Craker, L., 2016. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of medicinal plants from Uzbekistan: A review. J. Med. Active Plants5(2), 59-75.

Gattuso, G., Caristi, C., Gargiulli, C., Belloco, E., Toscano, G., Leuzzi, U., 2006. Flavonoid glycosides in bergamot juice (Citrus bergamia Risso). J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(11), 3929-3935.

Gomes, W.F., França, F.R.M., Denadai, M., Andrade, J.K.S., Maria da Silva, O.E., Sousa de Brito, E., Rodrigues, S., Narain, N., 2018. Effect of freeze- and spray-drying on physico-chemical characteristics, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of papaya pulp. J. Food Sci. Technol. 55 (6): 2095- 2102.

Herrera-Mata, H., Rosas-Romero, A., Crescente, O., 2002. Biological activity of “Sanguinaria” (Justicia secunda) extracts. Pharm. Biol. 40(3), 206-212.

Koffi, E.N., Le Guernevé, C., Lozano, R.P., Meudec, E., Adjé, A.F., Bekro, Y.A., Lozano, F.Y. 2013. Polyphenol extraction and characterization of Justicia secunda Vahl leaves for traditional medicinal uses. Ind. Crop Prod. 49, 682-689.

Koffi, E.N., Meudec, E., Adjé, F.A., Lozano, P.R., Lozano, Y.F., Bekro, Y.A., (2015). Effect of reverse osmosis concentration coupled with drying processes on polyphenols and antioxidant activity obtained from Tectona grandis leaf aqueous extracts. J. Appl. Res. Med. Aromat. Plants 2, 54-59.

Koné, W.M., Koffi, A.G.,  Bomisso, E.L., Tra Bi, F.H., 2012. Ethnomedical study and iron content of some medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine in Cote d'Ivoire for the treatment of anaemia. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement Altern. Med. 9(1), 81-87.

Li, A.-N., Li, S., Zhang, Y.-J., Xu, X.-R., Chen, Y.-M., Li, H.-B., 2014. Resources and biological activities of natural polyphenols. Nutrients 6, 6020-6047.

Lin, L.Z., Harnly, J.M., 2007. A screening method for the identification of glycosylated flavonoids and other phenolic compounds using a standard analytical approach for all plant materials. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55(4), 1084-1096.

Malick, S.A.N., Bradford, M.J., 2008. Recovery and stability of oleuropein and other phenolic compounds during extraction and processing of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves. J. Food Agric. Env. 6(2), 8-13.

Manda, P., Abrogoua, D.P., Bahi, C., Dano, D.S., Gnahoui, G., Kablan, B.J., 2011. Evaluation of the antihypertensive activity of total aqueous extract of Justicia secunda Valh (Acanthaceae). Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 5(16), 1838-1845.

Mpiana, P.T., Ngbolua, K.N., Bokota, M.T., Kasonga, T.K., Atibu, E.K., Tshibangu, D.S., Mudogo, V., 2010. In vitro effects of anthocyanin extracts from Justicia secunda Vahl on the solubility of haemoglobin S and membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes. Blood Transfus. 8, 248-254.

Mohammadhosseini, M., Sarker, S. D., Akbarzadeh, A., 2017. Chemical composition of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea species and their biological activities: A review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 199, 257-315.

N'guessan, K., Kouassi, K. H., Ouattara, D., 2010. Plants used to treat anaemia, in traditional medicine, by Abbey and Krobou populations, in the South of Côte-d’Ivoire. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 6(8), 1291-1297.

Nyamien, Y., Belleville, M.-P., Coulibaly, A., Adima, A., Biego, G.H., 2017. Extraction and concentration of bioactive compounds of Cola nitida using membrane processes: Analysis of operating parameters and membrane fouling. European J. Nutr. Food Saf. 7(1), 84-100.

Onoja, S.O., Ezeja, M.I., Omeh, Y.N., Onwukwe, B.C., 2017. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf. Alexandria J. Med. 53, 207-213.

Ou, B., Hampsch-Woodill, M., Prior, R.L., 2001. Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49(10), 4619-4626.

Peres, R.G., Tonin, F.G., Tavares, M.F.M., Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B, 2013. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in Ilex paraguariensis beverages and on-line evaluation of individual antioxidant activity. Molecules 18, 3859-3871.

Potì, F., Santi, D.,  Spaggiari, G.,  Zimetti, F,  Zanotti, I., 2019. Polyphenol health effects on cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders: a review and meta-analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20(2), 351.

Rasouli, H., Farzaei, M. H., Khodarahmi, R., 2017. Polyphenols and their benefits: A review. International J. Food Prop. 1-42.

Ratti, C., 2001. Hot air and freeze-drying of high-value foods: a review. J. Food Eng. 49, 311-319.

Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A., 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16, 144-158.

Susplugas, S., Van Hung, N., Bignon, J., Thoison, O., Kruczynski, A., Sévenet, T., Guéritte, F., 2005. Cytotoxic Arylnaphthalene Lignans from a Vietnamese Acanthaceae, Justicia patentiflora. J. Nat. Prod. 68(5), 734-738.

Theiler, B.A., Istvanits S., Zehl, M., Marcourt, L., Urban, E., Caisa, L.O., Glasl, S., 2017. HPTLC bioautography guided isolation of α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds from Justicia secunda Vahl (Acanthaceae). Phytochem. Anal. 28, 87-92.

Temraz, A., 2011. Flavonoidal content of Vangueria infausta extract grown in Egypt: Invetigation of its antioxidant activity. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2(3), 157-161.

Wilkowska, A., Ambroziak, W., Czyżowska, A., Adamiec, J., 2016. Effect of microencapsulation by spray-drying and freeze-drying technique on the antioxidant properties of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) juice polyphenolic compounds. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 66(1), 11-16.

Wood, J.E., Senthilmohan, S.T., Peskin, A.V., 2002. Antioxidant activity of procyanidin-containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chem. 77(2), 155-161.

Zhang, Y., Xiong, H., Xu, X., Xue, X., Liu, M., Xu, S., Liu, H., Gao, Y., Zhang, H., Li, X., 2018. Compounds Identification in Semen cuscutae by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLCS) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Molecules 23(5), p. 1199.

Zulueta, A., Esteve, M.J., Frígola, A., 2009. ORAC and TEAC assays comparison to measure the antioxidant capacity of food products. Food Chem. 114(1), 310-316.