Document Type : Original Article


1 CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Centre, Bangalore, India

2 CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

3 CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Research Centre, Boduppal, Hyderabad India


Davana (Artemisia pallens Bess), belonging to Asteraceae family, is an important aromatic crop of South India. The field experiment was laid out in randomized randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 6 replication during winter season 2018-2019. The 35 days old seedling were transplanting to the main field with spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm in order to investigate the influence of different growth stages on the essential oil content and major chemical composition of davana. The essential oil content found to be varied from vegetative stage (0.12%) to full blooming stage (0.25%). The major component davanone was found to be higher at before anthesis followed by anthesis stage (full blooming stage) and gradually decreased from early initiation of seed set stage to seed maturing stage. However, the amounts of other major constituent of davana oil like (E)-ethyl cinnamate and bicyclo germacrene increased from the vegetative stage to the seed maturing stage. Significant interaction effect observed between chemical content and different stages. Based on the experimental results full blooming stage is ideal for harvesting and it was also confirmed with the normal practice of farmers harvesting the crop.

Graphical Abstract

Influence of growth stage on essential oil content and major chemical constituents of Artemisia pallens Bess


Akşit, H., Demrbas, I., Telci, I., Tarimcilar, G., 2013. Chemical diversity in essential oil composition of Mentha longifolia (L.) hudson subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley var. typhoides from Turkey. J. Essent. Oil Res. 25(5), 430-437.
Aliniaeifard, S., Rezaei-Nejad, A., Seifi-Kalhor, M., Shahlaei, A., Aliniaeifard, A., 2010. Comparison of soil and perlite (with nutrient solution supply) growing media for cultivation of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora var. ‘Verbena’). Med. Aromat Plant Sci. Biotechnol. 4, 30-33.
Anwar, F., 2009. Changes in composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) fruit at different stages of maturity. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants 15, 1-16.
Arif, S., Tahsin, K., Bekir, T., Muhammet, T., Sabri, E., 2016. Growth stage and drying methods affect essential oil content and composition of pickling herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin). J. Nat. Appl. Sci. 20(1), 43-49.
Catalán, C.A., Cuenca, M.D.R., Verghese, J., Joy, M.T., Gutiérrez, A.B., Herz, W., 1990. Sesquiterpene ketones related to davanone from Artemisia pallens. Phytochemistry 29(8), 2702-2703.
Clevenger, J.F., 1928. Apparatus for the determination of volatile oil. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 17(4), 345-349. doi:10.1002/jps.3080170407
CRUZ, C.D., 2005. Princípios de genética quantitativa. Viçosa: UFV. 394.
Golparvar, A.R., 2011. Determination of the best harvesting times to obtain maximum dry herbage, essential oil and thymol yield in garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Int. J. Life Sci. Med. Res. 1, 1-4.
Husain, A., Virmani, O.P., Sharma, A., Kumar, A., Misra, L.N., 1988. Major essential Oil Bearing Plants of India; Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India.
Jayanthi, M., Vijayakumar, A., Vanangamudi, K., Rajamani, K., 2013. Seed developmental and maturation studies in davana (Artemisia pallens). IOSR JAVS. 4(6), 01-04.
Jeffrey, C., 2001. Compositae (Asteraceae). In: Hanelt P, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (Ed.) Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. 4, 2035-2145.
Khorshidi, J., Mohammadi, R., Fakhr, T.M., Nourbakhsh, H., 2009. Influence of drying methods, extraction time, and organ type on essential oil content of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Nature Sci. 7(11), 42-44.
Kianoush, H., Sasan, A., Mohammad, M.F., Madeh, A., 2017. Effect of phenological stages on essential oil content, composition and rosmarinic acid in Rosmarinus officinalis L. IJHST 4(2), 251-258. doi: 10.22059/ijhst.2018.234339.194.
Kim, N.S., Lee, D.S., 2004. Headspace solid-phase micro-extraction for characterization of fragrances of lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Sep. Sci. 27, 96-100.
Kizil, S., Toncer, O., Ipek, A., Arslan, N., Saglam, S., Khawar, K. M., 2008. Blooming stages of Turkish Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) affect essential oil composition. Acta Agr Scand B-S P 58(3), 273-279.
Klimes, I., Lamparsky, D., 1986. Analytical Results Concerning the Essential Oil of Artemisia pallens (Wall). In Progress Inessential Oil Research; Brunke, E. J., Ed.; Walter de Gruyter: Berlin, 197-214.
Mallavarapu, G.R., Raghavendra, N.K., Baskaran, K., Laxmi Rao, Ramesh, S., 1999. Influence of plant growth stage on the essential oil content and composition in davana (Artemisia pallens Wall.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 254-258.
Misra, L.N., Chandra, A., Thakur, R.S., 1991. Fragrant components of the oil from Artemisia pallens. Phytochemistry. 30, 549-552.
Pisana, R.C., 1989. Flavour and Extract Manufactures Association of the United States Report.11th International Congress of Essential Oils, Fragrances and Flavours. New Delhi, India. pp.157.
Rodrigues, L., Póvoa, O., Teixeira, G., Figueiredo, AC., Moldão, M., Monteiro, A. 2013. Trichomes micromorphology and essential oil variation at different developmental stages of cultivated and wild growing Mentha pulegium L. populations from Portugal. Industrial Crop Prod. 43, 692-700.
Rohloff, J., Dragland, S., Mordal, R., Henning, I.T., 2005. Effect of harvest time and drying method on biomass production, essential oil yield, and quality of peppermint (Mentha×piperita L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 4143-4148.
Sastry, K.P., Srinivas, K.V.N.S., Kotesh Kumar J., Niranjana Kumar, A., Dharmendra, K., Rajput, S., Anubala., 2015. Changes in the essential oil content and composition of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini) harvested at different stages and short intervals in two different seasons. Ind. Crop Prod. 69(3), 348-354.
Sefidkon, F., Abbasi, K.H., Bakhshi Khaniki G.H., 2006. Influence of drying and extraction method on yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Saturea hortensis. Food Chem. 99(1), 19-23.
Shreyas, R.M, Mamatha, M.K., Suma, U.S., 2018. A review on phytoconstituents and medicinal uses of davana. Asian J. Res. Chem. Pharm. Sci. 6(4), 202-205.
Verma, R.S., Rahman, L., Verma, R.K., Chauhan Yadav, A.K., Singh, A., 2010. Essential oil composition of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) and peppermint (Mentha piperita) cultivars at different stages of plant growth from Kumaon region of western Himalaya Open Access J. Med. Aromat. Plants 1(1), 13-18.