Document Type : Original Article


HIMT College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Knowledge Park1, Gr. Noida (U.P), India


Qurse pudina (QP), a poly herbal formulation which is used for treatment of constipation and gas problems in both Unani and Ayurvedic System of Indian Medicine. In the present article, an attempt has been made to standardize of the poly herbal formulation QP. The QP was standardized with the help of microscopic, physico-chemical and contamination evaluation. Study revealed that total bacterial and fungal count and Staphylococcus aureus were found under limit, while E. Coli was absent in the formulation. Pesticide residues, aflatoxin and toxic metals such as cadmium and mercury were not found in the formulation. Lead (0.75 mg/kg) and arsenic (0.50 mg/kg) were found under limit. The present outcome from contamination results suggest that QP is a good polyherbal formulation without showing any contamination or toxicity. The data evolved in the present work will aid in identifying the raw drugs used in finished product and will help to fix the scientific standards for QP.

Graphical Abstract

Pharmacognostical, physico-chemical and contamination studies of polyherbal formulation “Qurse pudina”


Aftab, K., Rahman, A., Ghani, K.U., 1995. Blood pressure lowering action of active principle from Trachyspermum ammi (L) Sprague. Phytomedicine. 2, 35-40.
Al-Noory, A.S., Amreen, A.N., Hymoor, S., 2013. Antihyperlipidemic effects of ginger extracts in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in (rats). Pharmacognosy Res. 5, 157-61.
Anderson, R.A., Qin, B., Canini, F., Poulet, L., Roussel, AM., 2013. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer associated changes. PLoS One 8(12), e83243, 1-12.
Badea, D.N., 2015. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd) in popular medicinal herbs in the coal power plant area.  Rev. Chim. 66, 1132-1136
Bardají, D.K.R., Reis, E.B., Medeiros, T.C.T., Lucarini, R., Crotti, A.E.M., Martins, C.H.G., 2016. Antibacterial activity of commercially available plant-derived essential oils against oral pathogenic bacteria. Nat. Prod. Res. 30, 1178-1181.
Bhagyanathan, N.K., Thoppil, J.E., 2015. Pharmacognostic and preliminary phytochemical profile of Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede. J. Pharmacog. Phytochem. 4, 114-117.
Case, G.L., He, L., Mo, H., Elson C.E., 1995. Induction of geranyl pyrophosphate pyrophosphatase activity by cholesterol-suppressive isoprenoids. Lipids 30, 357-359.
Chan, E.W.C, Lim, Y.Y., Wong, L.F.,   Lianto, F.S., Wong, S.K., Lim, K.K., Joe, C.E., Lim, T.Y., 2008. Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition properties of leaves and rhizomes of ginger species. Food Chem. 109, 477-483.
Chen, Y.F., Wang, Y.W., Huang, W.S., Lee, M.M., Wood, W.G., Leung, Y.M., Tsai, H.Y., 2016. Trans-cinnamaldehyde, an essential oil in cinnamon powder, ameliorates cerebral ischemia-induced brain injury via inhibition of neuroinflammation through attenuation of iNOS, COX-2 expression and NFκ-B signaling pathway. Neuromolecular Med. 18, 322-333.
Chopra, R.N., Chopra, I.C., 1994. Indigenous drugs of India 2nd ed., Academic Publishers, Calcutta, India, p. 196.
Dutt, V., Srivastav, S., Mittal, S., Haque, M.R., 2020. Determination of microbial load, total Phenolic and flavonoids contents in polyherbal formulation “yograj guggulu vati”, J. Drug Deliv. Therap. 10, 1-5
Haque, M.D., Ansari, S.H., Naquvi, K.J., Najmi, K, A., 2012a. Quality assessment of a traditional unani formulation arq zeera.J. Pharm. Res. 5, 778-782.
Haque, M.R., Ansari, H.S., 2018. Anti-obesity effect of arq zeera and its main components thymol and cumin aldehyde in high fat diet induced obese rats. Drug Res. 68, 637-647.
Haque, M.R., Ansari, S.H., 2019.  Aromatic aldehyde compound cuminaldehyde protects nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats feeding high fat diet. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 38, 823-832.
Haque, M.R., Ansari, S.H., Najmi, A.K., 2013. Cuminum cyminum L. fruits distillate ameliorates the high fat diet-induced obesity. Pharmacogn. Communications. 3, 49-57.
Haque, M.R., Ansari, S.H., Najmi, A.K., Ahmad, M.A., 2014. Monoterpene phenolic compound thymol prevents high fat diet induced obesity in murine model. Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 24, 116-123.
Haque, M.R., Ansari, S.H., Najmi, A.K., Naquvi, K.J., 2012b. Validated HPTLC analysis method for quantification of thymol content in Trachyspermum ammi and polyherbal Unani formulation arq zeera. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 4, 478-482.
HeW.P.HuangB.K.2011. A review of chemistry and bioactivities of a medicinal spice: Foeniculum vulgareJ. MedPlants Res. 5, 3595-3600.
Khare, C.P., 2004. Encyclopedia of Indian medicinal plants, Springerverlag Berlin Heidol, p. 309-310.
Kumar, V., Kushwaha, R., Goyal, A., Tanwar, B., Kaur, J., 2018. Process optimization for the preparation of antioxidant rich ginger candy using beetroot pomace extract. Food chem. 245, 168-177.
Liao, Y.R., Leu, Y.L., Chan, Y.Y., Kuo, P.C., Wu, T.S., 2012. Anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing effects of the constituents of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Molecules, 17, 8928-8937
Manjula, S., Shashidhara, S., Anita, S., Shilpa, S., 2012. Design development and evaluation of herbal tablets containing Andrographis paniculata and Phylanthus amarus.  Int. J. Pharm. Sci. 3:2352-62
McPartland, J.M., McKernan, K.J., 2017. Chapter 22. Contaminants of concern in Cannabis: microbes, heavy metals and pesticides. Cannabis sativa L. - Botany and Biotechnology. Chandra S, Lata H, ElSohly MA, eds. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 457-474.
Meena, R.,Meena, A.K., Khan, S.A., Mageswari, S., 2010.  Evaluation of a Unani compound formulation - Majoon-e-Sandal. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 1, 238-242.
Mendes, S.J.F., Sousa, F.I.A.B., Pereira, D.M.S., Ferro, T.E.F., Pereira, I.C.P., Silva, B.L.R., Pinheiro, A.J.M.C.R., Mouchrek, A.Q.S., Neto, V.M., Costa, S.K.P., Nascimento, J.L.M., Grisotto, M.A.G., Costa, R.D., Fernandes, E.S., 2016. Cinnamaldehyde modulates LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms. Int. Immunopharmacol. 34, 60-70.
Montserrat-de la Paz, S., Garcia-Gimenez, M.D., Quilez, A.M., De la Puerta, R., Fernandez-Arche, A., 2018. Ginger rhizome enhances the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of paracetamol in an experimental mouse model of fibromyalgia. Inflammopharmacology 26, 1093-1101.
Morsy, N.F.S., Abd El-Salam, E.A., 2017. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) essential oil and oleoresin. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 20, 779-790.
Nahak, G., Sahu, R.K., 2011. Phytochemical evaluation and antioxidant activity of Piper cubeba and Piper nigrum. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci. 01, 153-157.
Panda, H., 2013. Handbook on Ayurvedic Medicines with Formulae, Processes & Their Uses (2nd Revised Edition). Niir Project Consultancy Services publisher, pp. 255-256.
Rawat, M.S., Shankar, R., 2003. Distribution status of medicinal plants conservation in Arunachal Pradesh with special reference to National Medicinal Plants Board, BMEBR, 24, 1-11.
Riella, K.R., Marinho, R.R., Santos, J.S., Pereira-Filho, R.N., Cardoso, J.C., Albuquerque-Junior, R.L.C., Thomazzi, S.M., 2012. Anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities of thymol a monoterpene of the essential oil from Lippia gracilis, in rodents. J. Ethnopharmacol. 143, 656-663.
Sartorius, T., Peter, A., Schulz, N., Drescher, A., Bergheim, I., Machnn, J., Schick, F., Axel, D.S., Schurmann, A., Weigert, C., haring, H.U., hennige, A.M., 2014. Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity. PLoS One 9, 1-12.
Shivashankara, A.R., Haniadka, R., Fayad, R., Palatty, P.L., Arora, R., Baliga, M.S., 2013. Hepatoprotective effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger): A review.          Bioactive food as dietary interventions for liver and gastrointestinal disease, pp. 657-671.
Srivastava, K.C., 1988. Extract of a spice--omum (Trachyspermum ammi)-shows antiaggregatory effects and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 33, 1-6.

Tinoco, M.T.Martins, M.R.Cruz-Morais, J., 2007. Antimicrobial activity of Foenicu-lum vulgare Miller essential oil. Agric. Sci. J. 30, 448-454.

Upadhyay, R.K., Jaiswal, G., 2007. Evaluation of biological activities of Piper nigrum oil against Tribolium castaneum. Bull. Insectol. 60, 57-61.
Vinturelle, R., Mattos, C., Meloni, J., Nogueira, J., Nunes, M.J., Jr, I.S.V., Rocha, L., Lione, V., Castro, H.C., das Chagas, E.F., 2017. In vitro evaluation of essential oils derived from Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) and Citrus limonum (Rutaceae) against the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Biochem. Res. Int. 1-9.
Ali, W.,   Shaikh, H., Ansari, A.,   Khanam, S., 2016. Standardization of Unani antidiabetic tablet - qurse tabasheer. Pharmacogn. Res. 8, 147-152
Weaver, C.M., Trucksess, Mary, W., 2010. Determination of aflatoxins in botanical roots by a modification of AOAC Official Method SM 991.31: Single-laboratory validation.  J. AOAC Int. 9, 184-189.
Yang, X.Q., Zheng, H., Ye, Q., Li, R.Y., Chen, Y., 2015. Essential oil of cinnamon exerts anti-cancer activity against head and neck squamous cell carcinoma via attenuating epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase. JBUON 20, 1518-1525.
Yi‐Zeng, L., Peishan, X., Kelvin, C., 2004. Quality control of herbal medicines. J. Chromatogr. B. 812, 53