Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Botany, MBPG College, Haldwani, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

2 IORA-RCSTT Coordination Centre on Medicinal Plants (ICCMP), CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow - 226015

3 Department of Plant Pathology, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow - 226 015, India

4 Laboratory of Aromatic Plants and Chiral Separation, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow - 226 015, India

10.30495/tpr.2021.1914085.1184

Abstract

Plant pathogens lead to severe damage of the agricultural crops, worldwide. The disease management is currently being done by the synthetic chemicals. In the present report, Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm. oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-FID and GC/MS, which revealed (E)-cinnamaldehyde (40.6%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (19.6%), linalool (10.2%) and benzaldehyde (3.6%) as marker constituents. Contact, volatile and spore germination inhibition assays were performed to determine the antifungal activities of Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees & Eberm. against Rhizoctonia solani AG 4, Choanephora cucurbitarum and Bipolaris australiensis. C. tamala oil 500-560 ppm showed complete fungal growth inhibition in poison food technique over concentration range of. Solid-phase microextraction analysis of drop diffusion assay revealed the presence of benzaldehyde in headspace of Petri-plate, and found to be one of the strongest antifungal compounds against tested phytopathogens. Similarly, an oil concentration of 500 ppm inhibits spore germination. Therefore, products containing such compositions can be used for the plant diseases management.

Graphical Abstract

Inhibitory effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees & Eberm.) essential oil and its aldehyde constituents on growth and spore germination of phytopathogenic fungi

Keywords

Adams, R.P., 2006. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Allured Publishing Corp., Carol Stream IL, USA.
Alam, M., Sattar, A., Khaliq, A., Samad, A., Khanuja, S.P.S., 2004. A root rot and wilt disease of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cineraefolium) caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 in the north Indian plains. New Dis. Rep. 10, 37.
Amiri, A., Dugas, R., Pichot, A.L., Bompeix, G., 2008. In vitro and in vivo activity of eugenol oil (Eugenia caryophylata) against four important postharvest apple pathogens. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 126, 13-19.
Badawy, M.E.I., Abdelgaleil, S.A.M., 2014. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from Egyptian plants against plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Ind. Crop Prod. 52, 776-782.
Bajaj, B.S., Ghosh, A.K., 1975. Antifungal antibiotics in perspective. In: Chaudhary SP, Varma A, Bhargava KS, & Mehrotra BS (eds) Advances in Mycology and Plant Pathology. New Delhi: Sagar Printers, pp. 297-309.
Bisht, D., Pal, A., Chanotiya, C.S., Mishra, D., Pandey, K.N., 2011. Terpenoid composition and antifungal activity of three commercially important essential oils against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Nat. Prod. Res. 25, 1993-1998.
Copping, L.G., Duke, S.O., 2007. Natural products that have been used commercially as crop protection agents. Pest Manage. Sci. 63, 524-554.
Bukvički, D., Stojković, D., Soković, M., Vannini, L., Montanari, C., Pejin, B., Savić, A., Veljića, M., Grujića, S., Marin, P.D., 2014. Satureja horvatii essential oil: In vitro antimicrobial and antiradical properties and in situ control of Listeria monocytogenes in pork meat. Meat Sci. 96(3), 1355-1360.
Bullerman, L.B., Lieu, F.Y., Seier, S.A., 1977. Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production by cinnamon and clove oils, cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol. J. Food Sci. 42, 1107-1109.
Chanotiya, C.S., Yadav, A., 2010. Enantioenriched (3S)-(+)-linalool in the leaf oil of Cinnamomum tamala Nees et Eberm. from Kumaon. J. Essent. Oil Res. 22, 593-596.
Dorman, H.J., Deans, S.G., 2000. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88, 308-316.
Dudareva, N., Klempien, A., Muhlemann, J.K., Kaplan, I., 2013. Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of plant volatile organic compounds. New Phytol. 198(1), 16-32.
Elshafie, H.S., Mancini, E., Camele, I., Martino, L.D., Feo, V.D., 2015. In vivo antifungal activity of two essential oils from Mediterranean plants against postharvest brown rot disease of peach fruit. Ind. Crop Prod. 66, 11-15.
Erenler, R., Demirtas, I., Karan, T., Gul, F., Kayir, O., Karakoc, O., 2018. Chemical constituents, quantitative analysis and insecticidal activities of plant extract and essential oil from Origanum onites L. Trends Phytochem. Res. 2(2), 91-96.
Gupta, R.K., 1968. Flora Nainitalensis, p.299, Navyug Traders, New Delhi, India.
Heer, A., Guleria, S., Razdan, V. K., 2017. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and characterization of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Cinnamomum tamala grown in North-Western Himalaya. J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol. 26(2), 191-198.
Holmes, G.L., Eckert, J.W., 1999. Sensitivity of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum to post harvest Citrus fungicides in California. Phytopathol. 89, 716-721.
Karan, T., Yildiz, I., Aydın, A., Erenler, R., 2018a. Inhibition of various cancer cells proliferation of bornyl acetate and essential oil from Inula graveolens (Linnaeus) Desf. Rec. Nat. Prod. 12, 273-283.
Karan, T., Si̇msek, S., Yildiz, I., Erenler, R., 2018b. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Origanum syriacum L. essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzopertha dominica. Int. J. Sec. Metabolite 5(2), 87-93.
Kirtikar, K.R., Basu, B.D., 2000. Indian Medicinal Plants, p.2147, Lalitmohan Basu, Allahabad, India.
Knobloch, K., Pauli, P., Iberl, B., Weigand, H., Weiss, N., 1989. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oil components. J. Essent. Oil Res. 1, 119-128.
Lee, J-E., Seo, S-M., Huh, M-J., Lee, S-C., Park, I-K., 2020. Reactive oxygen species mediated-antifungal activity of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oils and their constituents against two phytopathogenic fungi. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 168, 104644.
Lopez-Meneses, A.K., Sanchez-Marinez, R.I., Quintana-Obregon, E.A., Parra-Vergara, N.V., Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.A., Lopez-Saiz, C.M., Cortez-Rocha, M.O., 2017. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Essential oils and Major Components against Fungi Plant Pathogens. J. Phytopathol. 165(4), 232-237.
Lubbe, A., Verpoorte, R., 2011. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants for specialty industrial materials. Ind. Crops Prod. 34, 785-801.
Matusinsky, P., Zouhar, M., Pavela, R., Novy, P., 2015. Antifungal effect of five essential oils against important pathogenic fungi of cereals. Ind. Crops Prod. 67, 208-215.
Nikolić, M., Marković, T., Mojović, M., Pejin, B., Savić, A., Perić, T., Marković, D., Stević, T., Soković, M., 2013. Chemical composition and biological activity of Gaultheria procumbens L. essential oil. Ind. Crops Prod. 49, 561-567.
Omura, M., Hirata, M., Zhao, M., Tanaka, A., Inoue, N., 1995. Comparative testicular toxicities of 2 isomers of dichloropropanol, 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol, and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and their metabolites alpha-chlorohydrin and epichlorohydrin and the potent testicular toxicant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 55, 1-7.
Parikh L.P., Agindotan B., Burrows, M.E., 2020. Antifungal Activity of Plant Derived Essential Oils on Pathogens of Pulse Crops. Plant dis. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-20-1401-RE.
Pare, P.W., Tumlinson, J.H., 1999. Plant volatiles as a defense against insect herbivores. Plant Physiol. 121, 325-331.
Pejin, B., Vujisic, L., Sabovljevic, M., Tesevic, V., Vajs, V., 2011. Preliminary data on essential oil composition of the moss Rhodobryum ontariense (Kindb.) Kindb. Cryptogamie, Bryologie 32(2), 113-117.
Perina, F.J., de Andrade, C.C.L., Moreira, S.I., Nery, E.M., Ogoshi, C., Alves, E., 2019. Cinnamomun zeylanicum oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde against Alternaria brown spot in tangerine: direct effects and induced resistance. Phytoparasitica 47(4), 575-589.
Pichersky, E., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N., 2006. Biosynthesis of Plant Volatiles: Nature’s Diversity and Ingenuity. Science 311, 808-811.
Pragadheesh, V.S., Saroj, A., Yadav, A., Chanotiya, C.S., Alam, M., Samad, A., 2013a. Chemical characterization and antifungal activity of Cinnamomum camphora essential oil. Ind. Crop Prod. 49, 628-633.
Pragadheesh, V.S., Saroj, A., Yadav, A., Samad, A., Chanotiya, C.S., 2013b. Compositions, enantiomer characterization and antifungal activity of two Ocimum essential oils. Ind. Crop Prod. 50, 333-337.
Saroj, A., Alam, M., Qamar, N., Abdul-Khaliq, Sattar, A., 2011. First report of Bipolaris australiensis causing pod rot of senna in India. New Dis. Rep. 23: 28.
Saroj, A., Kumar, A., Qamar, N., Alam, M., Singh, H.N., Khaliq, A., 2012. First report of wet rot of Withania somnifera caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in India. Plant Dis. 96, 293.
Saroj, A., Kumar, A., Srivastava, A.K., Absar, N., Abdul-Khaliq, Alam, M., Samad, A., 2014. New report of black leaf spot mold (Pseudocercospora fuligena) on Withania somnifera from India. Plant Dis. 98, 1275.
Saroj, A., Pragadheesh, V.S., Palanivelu, Yadav, A., Singh, S.C., Samad, A., Negi, A.S., Chanotiya, C.S. 2015. Anti-phytopathogenic activity of Syzygium cumini essential oil, hydrocarbon fractions and its novel constituents. Ind. Crop Prod. 74, 337-335.
Saroj, A., Chanotiya, C.S., Maurya, R., Pragadheesh, V.S., Yadav, A., Samad, A., 2019. Antifungal action of Lippia alba essential oil in Rhizoctonia solani disease management. SN Appl. Sci. 1, 1144.
Strange, R.N., Scott, P.R., 2005. Plant disease: a threat to global food security. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 43, 83-116.
Stringaro, A., Colone, M., Angiolella, L. 2018. Antioxidant, antifungal, antibiofilm, and cytotoxic activities of Mentha spp. essential oils. Medicines 5(4), 112.
Vicherová, E., Glinwood, R., Hájek, T. Šmilauer, P., Ninkovic, V., 2020. Bryophytes can recognize their neighbours through volatile organic compounds. Sci. Rep. 10, 7405 (2020).
Wan, J., Wilcock, A., Coventry, M.J., 1998. The effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84, 152-158.
Zheng, J., Liu, T., Guo, Z., Zhang, L., Mao, L., Zhang, Y., Jiang, H., 2019. Fumigation and contact activities of 18 plant essential oils on Villosiclava virens, the pathogenic fungus of rice false smut. Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1-10.
 
Adams, R.P., 2006. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Allured Publishing Corp., Carol Stream IL, USA.
Alam, M., Sattar, A., Khaliq, A., Samad, A., Khanuja, S.P.S., 2004. A root rot and wilt disease of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cineraefolium)caused byRhizoctonia solaniAG-4in the north Indian plains. New Dis. Rep. 10, 37.
Amiri, A., Dugas, R., Pichot, A.L., Bompeix, G., 2008. In vitro and in vivo activity of eugenol oil (Eugenia caryophylata) against four important postharvest apple pathogens. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 126, 13-19.
Badawy, M.E.I., Abdelgaleil, S.A.M., 2014. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from Egyptian plants against plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Ind. Crop Prod. 52, 776-782.
Bajaj, B.S., Ghosh, A.K., 1975. Antifungal antibiotics in perspective. In: Chaudhary SP, Varma A, Bhargava KS, & Mehrotra BS (eds) Advances in Mycology and Plant Pathology. New Delhi: Sagar Printers, pp. 297-309.
Bisht, D., Pal, A., Chanotiya, C.S., Mishra, D., Pandey, K.N., 2011. Terpenoid composition and antifungal activity of three commercially important essential oils against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Nat. Prod. Res. 25, 1993-1998.
Copping, L.G., Duke, S.O., 2007. Natural products that have been used commercially as crop protection agents. Pest Manage. Sci. 63, 524-554.
Bukvički, D., Stojković, D., Soković, M., Vannini, L., Montanari, C., Pejin, B., Savić, A., Veljića, M., Grujića, S., Marin, P.D., 2014. Satureja horvatii essential oil: In vitro antimicrobial and antiradical properties and in situ control of Listeria monocytogenes in pork meat. Meat Sci. 96(3), 1355-1360.
Bullerman, L.B., Lieu, F.Y., Seier, S.A., 1977. Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production by cinnamon and clove oils, cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol. J. Food Sci. 42, 1107-1109.
Chanotiya, C.S., Yadav, A., 2010. Enantioenriched (3S)-(+)-linalool in the leaf oil of Cinnamomum tamala Nees et Eberm. from Kumaon. J. Essent. Oil Res. 22, 593-596.
Dorman, H.J., Deans, S.G., 2000. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88, 308-316.
Dudareva, N., Klempien, A., Muhlemann, J.K., Kaplan, I., 2013. Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of plant volatile organic compounds. New Phytol. 198(1), 16-32.
Elshafie, H.S., Mancini, E., Camele, I., Martino, L.D., Feo, V.D., 2015. In vivo antifungal activity of two essential oils from Mediterranean plants against postharvest brown rot disease of peach fruit. Ind. Crop Prod. 66, 11-15.
Erenler, R., Demirtas, I., Karan, T., Gul, F., Kayir, O., Karakoc, O., 2018. Chemical constituents, quantitative analysis and insecticidal activities of plant extract and essential oil from Origanum onites L. Trends Phytochem. Res.2(2), 91-96.
Gupta, R.K., 1968. Flora Nainitalensis, p.299, Navyug Traders, New Delhi, India.
Heer, A., Guleria, S., Razdan, V. K., 2017. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and characterization of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Cinnamomum tamala grown in North-Western Himalaya. J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol. 26(2), 191-198.
Holmes, G.L., Eckert, J.W., 1999. Sensitivity of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum to post harvest Citrus fungicides in California. Phytopathol. 89, 716-721.
Karan, T., Yildiz, I., Aydın, A., Erenler, R., 2018a. Inhibition of various cancer cells proliferation of bornyl acetate and essential oil from Inula graveolens (Linnaeus) Desf. Rec. Nat. Prod. 12, 273-283.
Karan, T., Si̇msek, S., Yildiz, I., Erenler, R., 2018b. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Origanum syriacum L. essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzopertha dominica. Int. J. Sec. Metabolite 5(2), 87-93.
Kirtikar, K.R., Basu, B.D., 2000. Indian Medicinal Plants, p.2147, Lalitmohan Basu, Allahabad, India.
Knobloch, K., Pauli, P., Iberl, B., Weigand, H., Weiss, N., 1989. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oil components. J. Essent. Oil Res. 1, 119-128.
Lee, J-E., Seo, S-M., Huh, M-J., Lee, S-C., Park, I-K., 2020. Reactive oxygen species mediated-antifungal activity of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oils and their constituents against two phytopathogenic fungi. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 168, 104644.
Lopez-Meneses, A.K., Sanchez-Marinez, R.I., Quintana-Obregon, E.A., Parra-Vergara, N.V., Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.A., Lopez-Saiz, C.M., Cortez-Rocha, M.O., 2017. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Essential oils and Major Components against Fungi Plant Pathogens. J. Phytopathol. 165(4), 232-237.
Lubbe, A., Verpoorte, R., 2011. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants for specialty industrial materials. Ind. Crops Prod. 34, 785-801.
Matusinsky, P., Zouhar, M., Pavela, R., Novy, P., 2015. Antifungal effect of five essential oils against important pathogenic fungi of cereals. Ind. Crops Prod. 67, 208-215.
Nikolić, M., Marković, T., Mojović, M., Pejin, B., Savić, A., Perić, T., Marković, D., Stević, T., Soković, M., 2013. Chemical composition and biological activity of Gaultheria procumbens L. essential oil. Ind. Crops Prod. 49, 561-567.
Omura, M., Hirata, M., Zhao, M., Tanaka, A., Inoue, N., 1995. Comparative testicular toxicities of 2 isomers of dichloropropanol, 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol, and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and their metabolites alpha-chlorohydrin and epichlorohydrin and the potent testicular toxicant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 55, 1-7.
Parikh L.P., Agindotan B., Burrows, M.E., 2020. Antifungal Activity of Plant Derived Essential Oils on Pathogens of Pulse Crops. Plant dis. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-20-1401-RE.
Pare, P.W., Tumlinson, J.H., 1999. Plant volatiles as a defense against insect herbivores. Plant Physiol. 121, 325-331.
Pejin, B., Vujisic, L., Sabovljevic, M., Tesevic, V., Vajs, V., 2011. Preliminary data on essential oil composition of the moss Rhodobryum ontariense (Kindb.) Kindb. Cryptogamie, Bryologie 32(2), 113-117.
Perina, F.J., de Andrade, C.C.L., Moreira, S.I., Nery, E.M., Ogoshi, C., Alves, E., 2019. Cinnamomun zeylanicum oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde against Alternaria brown spot in tangerine: direct effects and induced resistance. Phytoparasitica 47(4), 575-589.
Pichersky, E., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N., 2006. Biosynthesis of Plant Volatiles: Nature’s Diversity and Ingenuity. Science 311, 808-811.
Pragadheesh, V.S., Saroj, A., Yadav, A., Chanotiya, C.S., Alam, M., Samad, A., 2013a.Chemical characterization and antifungal activity of Cinnamomum camphora essential oil. Ind. Crop Prod. 49, 628-633.
Pragadheesh, V.S., Saroj, A., Yadav, A., Samad, A., Chanotiya, C.S., 2013b. Compositions, enantiomer characterization and antifungal activity of two Ocimum essential oils. Ind. Crop Prod. 50, 333-337.
Saroj, A., Alam, M., Qamar, N., Abdul-Khaliq, Sattar, A., 2011. First report of Bipolaris australiensis causing pod rot of senna in India. New Dis. Rep. 23: 28.
Saroj, A., Kumar, A., Qamar, N., Alam, M., Singh, H.N., Khaliq, A., 2012. First report of wet rot of Withania somnifera caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in India. Plant Dis. 96, 293.
Saroj, A., Kumar, A., Srivastava, A.K., Absar, N., Abdul-Khaliq, Alam, M., Samad, A., 2014. New report of black leaf spot mold (Pseudocercospora fuligena) on Withania somnifera from India. Plant Dis. 98, 1275.
Saroj, A., Pragadheesh, V.S., Palanivelu, Yadav, A., Singh, S.C., Samad, A., Negi, A.S., Chanotiya, C.S. 2015. Anti-phytopathogenic activity of Syzygium cumini essential oil, hydrocarbon fractions and its novel constituents. Ind. Crop Prod. 74, 337-335.
Saroj, A., Chanotiya, C.S., Maurya, R., Pragadheesh, V.S., Yadav, A., Samad, A., 2019. Antifungal action of Lippia alba essential oil in Rhizoctonia solani disease management. SN Appl. Sci. 1, 1144.
Strange, R.N., Scott, P.R., 2005. Plant disease: a threat to global food security. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 43, 83-116.
Stringaro, A., Colone, M., Angiolella, L. 2018. Antioxidant, antifungal, antibiofilm, and cytotoxic activities of Mentha spp. essential oils. Medicines 5(4), 112.
Vicherová, E., Glinwood, R., Hájek, T. Šmilauer, P., Ninkovic, V., 2020. Bryophytes can recognize their neighbours through volatile organic compounds. Sci. Rep. 10, 7405 (2020).
Wan, J., Wilcock, A., Coventry, M.J., 1998. The effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84, 152-158.
Zheng, J., Liu, T., Guo, Z., Zhang, L., Mao, L., Zhang, Y., Jiang, H., 2019. Fumigation and contact activities of 18 plant essential oils on Villosiclava virens, the pathogenic fungus of rice false smut. Sci. Rep. 9(1), 1-10.