Document Type : Review article

Authors

1 Department of Chemistry, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 47, Yaounde, Cameroon

2 Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon

3 Department of Chemistry, University of Douala, Faculty of Sciences, 24157 Douala, Cameroon

4 Department of Chemistry, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Bamenda, P.O Box 39, Bambili, Cameroon

10.30495/tpr.2021.1928329.1204

Abstract

Ekebergia (Meliaceae) is a genus of flowering shrubs and trees widely distributed in the African continent. It is represented by four species namely E. capensis Sparrm, E. benguelensis Welw. ex C.DC, E. pterophylla (C.DC.) Hofmeyr and E. pumila I.M.Johnst. The information for this review has been collected via a survey performed through several online libraries including the Plantlist, Jstor, Scifinder, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Dictionary of Natural Products. So far, about 69 distinct compounds have been isolated during the previous phytochemical studies of Ekebergia genus plants. These compounds belong to diverse classes of metabolites such as limonoids, triterpenoids, coumarins, steroids, alkaloids, stilbenes and phenolic compounds. Some of these isolates displayed various bioactivities including antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, antiproliferative or uterotonic activities. This review covers the traditional uses, the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of the genus Ekebergia over the last four decades (1980 to 2020).

Graphical Abstract

Phytochemistry, traditional uses, and pharmacology of the genus Ekebergia (Meliaceae): A review

Keywords

Aladesanmi, A.J., Iwalewa, E.O., Adebajo, A.C., Akinkunmi, E.O., Taiwo, B.J., Olorunmola, F.O., Lamikanra, A., 2007. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Trad. Complem. Altern. Med. 4, 173-184.
Amoo, S.O., Aremu, A.O., Moyo, M., Van Staden, J., 2012. Antioxidant and acetyl cholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants. BMC Complem. Altern. Med. 12, 87. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-12-87.
Arbonier, M., 2004. Trees, Shrubs and Lianas of West African Dry Zones, CIRAD, Magraf Publishers. Gmbh, MNHN, Paris, France, p. 573.
Arnold, H.J., Gulumian, M., 1984. Pharmacopoeia of traditional medicine in Venda. J. Ethnopharmacol. 12, 35-74.
Bagla, V.P., McGaw, L.J., Eloff, J.N., 2012. The antiviral activity of six South African plants traditionally used against infections in ethno veterinary medicine. Vet. Microbiol. 155, 198-206. 
Bevan, C.W.L., Ekong, D.E.U., Taylor, D.A.H., 1965. Extractives from West African members of the family Meliaceae. Nature 206, 1323-1325.
Bruneton, J., 1999. «Pharmacognosie: Phytochimie, Plantes médicinales». 3ème édition, Technique et Documentation, Paris, pp. 189-609.
Burkill, H.M., 1985. Ekebergia senegalensis A Juss. [Family Meliaceae]. In: Burkill, HM, editors. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Ed. Vol. 4. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C., Schmidt, E., 2018. Trees and shrubs Mozambique. Publishing Print Matters (pty), Cape Town, p. 381.
Chavez, D., Chai, H.B., Chagwedera, T.E., Gao, Q., Farnsworth, N.R., Cordell, G.A., Pezzuto, J.M., Kinghorn. A.D., 2001. Novel stilbenes isolated from the root bark of Ekebergia benguelensis. Tetrahedron Lett. 42, 3685-3688.
Christenhusz, M.J.M., Byng, J.W., 2016.  The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa. 261, 201-217. https://doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
Drummond, R.B., 1981. Common trees of the Central Watershed Woodlands of Zimbabwe. Natural Resources Board, Harare, pp. 106-107.
Duncan, A.C., Jäger, A.K., Van Staden, J., 1999. Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. J. Ethnopharmacol. 68, 63-70.
Eguale, T., Tilahun, G., Gidey, M., Mekonnen, Y., 2006. In vitro anthelmintic activities of four Ethiopian medicinal plants against Haemonchus contortus. PharmacologyOnLine 3, 153-65.
Gachathi, M., 2007. Kikuyu Botanical Dictionary: A Guide of Plant Names, Uses and Cultural Values. Rev. 2nd Ed., Tropical Botany Press, Gituamba, Kenya.
George, S., Clark, G.M., 1995. Coumarins. Perfum. Flavor. 20, 23-44.
Getaneh, S., Girma, Z., 2014. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in debre libanos wereda, central Ethiopia. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 8, 366-379.
Happi, G.M., Ngadjui, B.T., Green, I.R., Kouam, S.F., 2018. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Entandrophragma over the 50 years from 1967 to 2018: a ‘golden’ overview. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 70, 1431-1460.
Irungu, B.N., Orwa, J.A., Gruhonjic, A., Fitzpatrick, P.A., Landberg, G., Kimani, F., Midiwo, J., Erdelyi, M., Yenesew, A., 2014. Constituents of the roots and leaves of Ekebergia capensis and their potential antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities. Molecules 19, 14235-14246.
Jäger, A.K., Hutchings, A., Van Staden, J., 1996. Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. J. Ethnopharmacol. 52, 95-100.
Jiofack, T., Fokunang, C., Guedje, N., Kemeuze, V., Fongnzossie, F.E., Nkongmeneck, B.A., Mapongmetsem, M.P., Tsabang, N., 2010. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants of two ethno ecological regions of Cameroon. Int. J. Med. Medical Sci. 2, 60-79.
Jonker, S.A., Nkunya, M.H.H., Mwamtobe, L., Geenevasen, J., Koomen, G.J., 2006. A new coumarin and polyhydroxysqualenes from Ekebergia benguelensis. Nat. Prod. Lett. 10, 245-248.
Kamadyaapa, D.R., Gondwe, M.M., Moodley, K., Ojewole, J.A., Musabayane, C.T., 2009.  Cardiovascular effects of Ekebergia capensis sparrm (Meliaceae) ethanolic leaf extract in experimental animal paradigms. Cardiovasc. J. Afr. 20, 162-167.
Kama-Kama, F., Midiwo, J., Nganga, J., Maina, N., Schiek, E., Omosa, L.K., Osanjo, G., Naessens, J., 2016. Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. J. Ethnopharmacol. 192, 524-534.
Kehrli, A.R.N., Taylor, D.A.H., Niven, M., 1990. Limonoids from Ekebergia pterophylla seed. Phytochemistry 29, 153-159.
Kemayou, G.P.M., Happi, G.M., Ngandjui, Y.A.T., Tchouankeu, J.C., Sewald, N., Shaiq, M.A., Kouam, S.F., 2020. Senegalin, a new phenylpropanoid and other secondary metabolites from the stem bark of Ekebergia senegalensis A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Nat. Prod. Res. 1-7.
Koch, A., Tamez, P., Pezzuto, J., Soejarto, D., 2005. Evaluation of plants used for antimalarial treatment by the maasai of Kenya. J. Ethnopharmacol. 101, 95-99.
Lall, N., Meyer, J.J.M., 1999. In vitro inhibition of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by ethnobotanically selected South African plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 66, 347-354.
Lambert, J., Srivastava, J., Vietmeyer, N., 1997. Medicinal Plants, Rescuing a Global Heritage, Papers 355, World Bank-Technical Papers, Washington, DC.
Lontsi, D., Ayafor, J.F., Sondengam, B.L., 1985. The use of two-dimensional long-range δH/δC correlation in conjunction with the one-dimensional proton-coupled 13C NMR spectrum in the structural elucidation of ekeberginine, a new carbazole alkaloid from Ekebergia senegalensis (Meliaceae). Tetrahedron Lett. 26, 4249-4252.
Mabona, U., Viljoen, A., Shikanga, E., Marston, A., Van Vuuren, S., 2013. Antimicrobial activity of Southern African medicinal plants with dermatological relevance: From an ethnopharmacological screening approach, to combination studies and the isolation of a bioactive compound. J. Ethnopharmacol. 148, 45-55.
Maroyi., A., 2018.  A review of the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Ekebergia capensis SPARRM. Asian J. Pharm. Clinic. Res. 11(10), 59-68.
Meragiaw, M., Asfaw, Z., Argaw, M., 2016. The status of ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants and the impacts of resettlement in Delanta, North Western Wello, Northern Ethiopia. Evidence-Based Compl. Altern. Med. 24. https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5060247.
Mokoka, T.A., Xolani, P.K., Zimmermann, S., Hata, Y., Adams, M., Kaiser, M., Moodley, N., Maharaj, V., Koorbanally, N.A., Hamburger, M., Brun, R., Fouche, G., 2013. Antiprotozoal screening of 60 South African plants, and the identification of the antitrypanosomal germacranolides schkuhrin I and II. Planta Med. 79, 1380-1384.
Mulaudzi, R.B., Ndhlala, A.R., Kulkarni, M.G., Finnie, J.F., Van Staden, J., 2013. Anti-inflammatory and mutagenic evaluation of medicinal plants used by Venda people against venereal and related diseases. J. Ethnopharmacol. 146, 173-179.
Mulholland, D.A., Iourine, S.E., 1998. Limonoids from Ekebergia capensis. Phvtochemistry 47, 1357-1361.
Mulholland, D.A., Iourine, S.E., Taylor, A.H., Dean, F.M., 1998. Coumarins from Ekebergia pterophylla. Phytochemistry 47, 1641-1644.
Mulholland, D.A., Mahomed, H.A., Lourine, S., 1997. A comparison of extractives from the bark of Ekebergia capensis and Ekebergia senegalensis. S. Afr. J. Bot. 63, 259-260.
Murata, T., Miyase, T., Muregi, F.W., Naoshima-Ishibashi, Y., Umchara, K., Warashina, T., Ishih, A., 2008. Antiplasmodial triterpenoids from Ekebergia capensis. J. Nat. Prod. 71, 167-174.
Muregi, F.W., Chhabra, S.C., Njagi, E.N., Lang’at-Thoruwa, C.C., Njue, W.M., Orago, A.S., Omar, S.A., Ndiege, I.O., 2004. Anti-plasmodial activity of some Kenyan medicinal plant extracts singly and in combination with chloroquine. Phytother. Res. 18, 379-384.
Ndukwe, I.G., Habila, J.D., Bello, I.A., Adeleye, E.O., 2006. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts from the leaves stem bark and root bark of Ekebergia senegalensis A. Juss. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5, 1792-1794.
Nishiyama, Y., Moriyasu, M., Ichimarou, M., Tachibana, Y., Kato, A., Mathenge, S.G., Juma, F.D., 1996. Acyclic triterpenoids from Ekebergia capensis. Phytochemistry 42, 803-807.
Nishiyama, Y., Moriyasu, M., Ichimaru, M., Kato, A., Mathenge, S.G., Nganga, J.N., Juma, F.D., 1999. Absolute configurations of two acyclic triterpenoids from Ekebergia capensis. Phytochemistry 52, 1593-1596.
Ochwang’i, D.O., Kimwele, C.N., Oduma, J.A., Gathumbi, P.K., Mbaria, J.M., Kiama, S.G., 2014. Medicinal plants used in treatment and management of cancer in Kakamega County, Kenya. J. Ethnopharmacol. 151, 1040-1055.
Opio, D.R., Andama, E., Kureh, G.T., 2017. Ethnobotanical survey of antimalarial plants in areas of Abukamola, Angeta, Oculokori and Omarari of Alebtong District in Northern Uganda. Eur. J. Med. Plants 21, 1-14.
Pujol, J., 1990. Natur Africa: The Herbalist Handbook: Africa Flora, Medicinal Plants. Durban, Jean Pujol Natural Healers Foundation, Johannesburg: Thorold's Africana Books, pp. 1-192.
Rabe, T., Van Staden, J., 1997. Antibacterial activity of South African plants used for medicinal purposes. J. Ethnopharmacol. 56, 81-87.
Schmidt, E., Lotter, M., McCleland, W., 2002. Trees and Shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park. Johannesburg: Jacana Media, p. 702.
Sewram, V., Raynor, M.W., Mulholland, D., Raidoo, D.M., 2000. The uterotonic activity of compound isolated from the supercritical fluid extract of Ekebergia capensis. J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. Anal. 24, 133-145.
Sofidiya, M.D., Odukoya, O.A., Familoni, O.B., Inya-Agha, S.I., 2006. Free radical scavenging activity of some Nigerian medicinal plant extracts. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 9, 1438-1441.
Suleman, S., Tufa, T.B., Kebebe, D., Belew, S., Mekonnen, Y., Gashe, F., Mussa, E., Wynendaele, E., Duchateau, L., De Spiegeleer, B., 2018. Treatment of malaria and related symptoms using traditional herbal medicine in Ethiopia. J. Ethnopharmacol. 213, 262-279.
Tagne, R.S., Telefo, B.P., Nyemb, J.N., Yemele, D.M., Njima, S.N., Goka, S.M., Lienou, L., Nwabo, K.A.V., Moundipa, P.F., Farooq, A.D., 2014. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts and fractions of some Cameroonian medicinal plants. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med. 7, S442-S447.
Tan, Q-G., Luo, X-D., 2011. Meliaceae Limonoids: chemistry and biological activities. Chem. Rev. 111, 7437-7522.
Taylor, A.R.H., Taylor, D.A.H., 1984. Limonoids from Ekebergia pterophylla. Phytochemistry 23, 2676-2677.
Taylor, D.A.H., 1981. Ekebergin, a limonoid extractive from Ekebergia capensis. Phytochemistry 20, 2263-2265.
Troupin, G., 1982. Flore des plantes ligneuses du Rwanda. Publication numéro 21, Institut National de Recherche Scientifique, Butare Rwandaise, pp. 398-400.
Tuasha, N., Petros, B., Asfaw, Z., 2018. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers to treat malignancies and other human ailments in Dalle District, Sidama zone, Ethiopia. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 14, 15.
Van Wyk, B.E., Van Oudtshoorn, B., Gericke, N., 2013. Medicinal Plants of South Africa. 2nd ed., Pretoria: Briza, Publications, p. 366.
Williams, A., Ngulde, S.I., Tijjani, M.B., Malgwi, B.U., Sandabe, U.K., 2013. Analgesic activities of the aqueous extract of Ekebergia senegalensis A. Juss stem bark in albino rats. Cont. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Res. 6, 17-21.
York, T., de Wet, H., van Vuuren, S.F., 2011. Plants used for treating respiratory infections in rural Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J. Ethnopharmacol. 135, 696-710.
York, T., Van Vuuren, S.F., de Wet, H., 2012. An antimicrobial evaluation of plants used for the treatment of respiratory infections in rural Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J. Ethnopharmacol. 144, 118-127.
Zerabruk, S., Yirga, G., 2012. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Gindeberet District, Western Ethiopia. S. Afr. J. Bot. 78, 165-169.